Public Safety Telecommunicator - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Public Safety Telecommunicator

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  1. Public Safety Telecommunicator

  2. Module One – Interpersonal Communications • Objectives • List the combined verbal & nonverbal elements that communicate to the telecommunicator the situation being reported • List/explain the 5 components of the communications cycle • List/describe the basic techniques of active listening • Describe the correct processes for speech/diction in communications • Explain the difference between observations/inferences • Explain the methods to ensure proper customer service in emergency communications

  3. Nonverbal Communication • Most understanding is conveyed through nonverbal communication • Tone of voice • Inflection • Background noise

  4. The Communications Cycle • Sender • Receiver • Message • Medium • Feedback

  5. Senders and Receivers • Can be either one in the beginning • Telecommunicators switch between the two

  6. Message • Formatting can make a difference in how its received • Can be interpreted different ways

  7. Medium • Can generate the level of importance of the message • Alert Tone • 9-1-1

  8. Feedback • Definition of communication – “…with understanding” • Confirms receipt as intended

  9. Hearing and Listening • Hearing – the process or power of perceiving sound • Listening – hearing sounds with thoughtful intent

  10. Active Listening • Nonverbal Attending • Open-ended Questions • Paraphrasing • Reflecting Feelings

  11. Nonverbal Attending • Physically signaling that you are listening • Sets comfortable tone • Encourages the sender to keep talking • Demonstrates your concern & interest • Signals to the sender that you are interested in what they have to say • Signals that you are following the conversation

  12. Nonverbal Attending - Examples • Maintaining eye contact • Leaning slightly forward • Allowing pauses without interruption • Raising eyebrows • Smiling • Nodding • Sending brief verbal messages

  13. Open-Ended Questions • Cannot be answered yes or no • Tell me about… • Why… • How… • Describe… • Explain… • Encourages the sender to open up • Allows the sender to expand • Lets sender know their thinking matters • Loosens up quiet people • Helps vent anger

  14. Open-Ended Questions - Example • Caller – “Someone broke into my house!” • Open-ended Question Response – “When did this happen?”

  15. Paraphrasing • Brief rephrasing of information provided by the sender • Demonstrates you are listening & understand • Helps make sure your interpretation is correct • Allows sender to explore issues more fully without agreement • Encourages sender to more fully analyze subject matter

  16. Paraphrasing - Example • Caller – “He has a gun!” • Paraphrasing Response “You say you saw a gun?”

  17. Reflecting Feelings • Repeating in a short declarative statement what the sender is communicating • Helps open communication channels • Causes sender to feel understood • Gives sender the freedom to explore the issue • Helps sender vent emotions

  18. Reflecting Feelings - Example • Caller – “Please help me – I don’t know what to do.” • Reflecting Feelings Response – “I understand you’re anxious. I’ll stay on the line with you until help arrives.”

  19. Active Listening Pitfalls • Conversation Overload • Personal Preoccupation • Rate of Thought • Noise • Assumptions

  20. Conversation Overload • Must prioritize listening • Your current conversation is the most important

  21. Personal Preoccupation • Active listening can be counteracted by personal thoughts • Leave personal issues at home and work issues at work

  22. Rate of Thought • Most people speak at 150 words per minute • Understand 600 words per minute • Can cause “spare time”

  23. Noise • Telephones, radios, other distracters make it difficult to remain focused • Practice selective hearing and active listening

  24. Assumptions • Regular callers • Actively listen to each call • Handle each call on its own merits

  25. Speech and Diction • Should be understandable in normal conversation • Work on speaking slowly • Be aware of enunciation of standard phrases

  26. Rate of Speech • Speak at 150 words per minute • Write at 40 – 50 words per minute • Response units listening in less-than-perfect circumstances • Practice talking slower

  27. Observations • The act or practice of noting and recording facts and events • What we see and hear or what we think we see and hear • Can be made only after observation • Must stay within what one observes • Can be made only by the observer • Can be made only to the extent of the observer’s abilities and proficiency

  28. Inferences • The deriving of a conclusion based on something known or assumed • Can be made any time • Are only limited by one’s imagination • Can be made by anyone • Deal only with probability • Can be made by the incompetent

  29. Customer Service in Emergency Communications • Perception is reality • Definition of a caller • Trigger phrases

  30. MODULE Two Radio Technology

  31. Module Two: Objectives • Describe what radio is • List/define the terms commonly associated with radio technology • Describe the history of public safety radio systems • List/describe the basic equipment & components of a public safety radio system • Explain the telecommunicator’s role in equipment care & maintenance • Describe the 2 types of radio systems typically used in public safety communications • Define “radio frequency” & how it relates to public safety communications • Describe radio interoperability & why it is necessary in public safety communications

  32. What is Radio? • Means of transmitting information without physical connections between the sender and receiver • Designed for 1 person to talk at a time

  33. Radio Terminology • Transmitter • Receiver • Base station • Repeater • Spectrum • Mobile radio • Portable radio • Radio pager • Control equipment • Radio interoperability

  34. Public Safety Radio Systems History • Officers transmitted information by rapping nightsticks on sidewalk • Electricity led to the use of street lights • First radio used dots/dashes • AM radio broadcasts were interrupted – “Calling all Cars!” • Hand carried transistor radios • Mid-1960’s – 1st portable based public safety radio system

  35. Transmitters, Receivers & Antennas • Transmitter turns voice into electronic signal • Sends signal to antenna • Antenna broadcasts signal • Receiver “hears” signal & turns it back into voice

  36. Repeaters • Used to extend the effective range of communication by receiving & repeating radio signals • Use several frequencies to transmit & receive signals • Slight time lag between receive & repeat • Necessary to hold down button before & after talking

  37. Portable Radios • Transmitter/receiver capable of independent operation using internal batteries & integral antenna • Used by response units while away from vehicles • Generally low power with limited range • Ambient noise may make it difficult to hear

  38. Mobile Radios • Permanently installed in response vehicles • More powerful than portable radios • Better transmit/receive capabilities • Uses externally mounted antenna (on vehicle)

  39. Radio Pagers • One-way receiver & decoder that can be individually activated by PSAP over a radio system • Activate only when the individual/department is needed • Typically used to dispatch initial calls to • in-service fire & EMS units • Can be worn on the belt • Battery-operated

  40. Consoles and Control Equipment • Devices used to operate remote radio equipment • Ranges from simple desktop to complex, freestanding consoles • Can incorporate controls for radios, CAD, 9-1-1, paging systems

  41. Care and Maintenance of Equipment • Routine inspection can provide early warning of failure • Report changes in performance to supervisor

  42. Conventional & Trunked Radio Systems • Conventional • Group of radios assigned a frequency • One radio transmits at a time • Each channel requires frequency • Trunked • Many talk groups share available frequencies • Central controller sorts out usage • Allows for fewer frequencies

  43. Conventional Radio System

  44. Frequency • Radio signals are transmitted on specific frequencies • Individual frequencies are assigned to radio stations (PSAPs) • PSAPs may have multiple frequencies • Primary frequency may be repeater channel • Tactical frequencies

  45. Radio Interoperability • Ability for multiple agencies to converse with one another using common radio frequencies • PSAPs close geographically may use different frequencies to prevent interference • Large scale emergencies will require a need to communicate with each other

  46. Federal Communications Commission • Licenses agencies to utilize radio frequencies for public safety purposes • Sets limits for • Radio output power • Antenna height • Frequency usage • Rules reduce interference & provide for clear radio communications

  47. Rules for Operation • Authorizes stations broadcasting on public safety frequencies to transmit communications essential to official law enforcement, fire service, EMS or other emergency service activities • All transmissions must be confined to communications directly related to public safety & the protection of life & property

  48. Rules for Operation • Unlawful to transmit superfluous signals, messages or communication of any kind • Unlawful to broadcast false calls or fraudulent distress signals • Unlawful to broadcast obscene, indecent or profane language • Unlawful to cause malicious interference with any other radio • Unlawful to broadcast unnecessary or unidentified transmissions

  49. Rules for Operation • Unlawful to willfully damage or permit damage to radio equipment • Unlawful to intercept & use or publish content of any radio transmission without permission • Transmission of unauthorized call letters prohibited • Telecommunicators are required to monitor frequency for traffic before transmitting

  50. FCC Regulations • Broadcasting Obscene Language • Identification requirements (FCC callsign every 30 minutes) • Licensing requirements • Posting station licenses • Unauthorized publication of communications