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8: Basic Security. Networking for Home & Small Business. People use networks to exhange sensitive information. We expect SECURE networks to PROTECT our IDENTITY & INFO. What’s Ahead…. Networking Threats Methods of Attack Security Policy Using Firewalls. Networking Threats.

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8: Basic Security

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8 basic security

8: Basic Security

Networking for Home & Small Business


People use networks

to exhange sensitive



We expect SECURE

networks to PROTECT


what s ahead
What’s Ahead…
  • Networking Threats
  • Methods of Attack
  • Security Policy
  • Using Firewalls



network intrusion
Network Intrusion
  • Attacks can be devastating
    • Cost money, time, theft of files, etc
    • Intruders who gain access by modifying software or exploiting software vulnerabilities
4 threats from hacker
4 Threats from Hacker
  • Information theft
  • Identity theft
  • Data loss / manipulation
  • Disruption of service
4 threats from the hacker
4 Threats from the Hacker
  • Stealing Confidential Info
    • Credit card #’s
    • Private Company info such as a project in development
    • Could be sold
4 threats from the hacker1
4 Threats from the Hacker
  • Destroy or Alter Records
    • Send a virus that reformats HD
    • Changing your grades
    • Change store prices
4 threats from the hacker2
4 Threats from the Hacker
  • Identity Theft
    • Stealing info to take on identity
    • Applying for credit cards & buying stuff
    • Obtain DL’s
4 threats from the hacker3
4 Threats from the Hacker
  • Disrupting Service
    • Preventing user from accessing services such as Internet
where d he come from
Where’d He Come From?
  • External Threat
    • Outside attacker
    • Internet or Wireless
where d he come from1
Where’d He Come From?
  • Internal Threat
    • Has authorized access
      • Knows people & network
      • Knows what info is valuable
    • OR someone may have just picked up a virus
  • According to the FBI, internal access and misuse of computers systems account for approximately 70% of reported incidents of security breaches.
social engineering
Social Engineering
  • Easiest way to gain access…
  • Deceiving internal users into performing actions or revealing confidential info
    • Takes advantage of them
    • Usually don’t meet them face-to-face
fight intrusion
Fight Intrusion
  • http://www.us-cert.gov/reading_room/before_you_plug_in.html
  • http://www.us-cert.gov/reading_room/distributable.html
  • Example 1
  • Example 2
3 types of social engineering
3 Types of Social Engineering
  • Pretexting, Phishing, and Vishing
let s try this
Let’s Try This…
  • Cyber Security Awareness Quiz
other attacks
Other Attacks
  • Viruses, Worms and Trojan horses
    • Malicious software put on hosts
    • Damage system, destroy data, deny access
    • They can forward data to thieves
    • Can replicate to other hosts
3 evil things
3 Evil Things
  • Viruses, Worms and Trojan horses
    • Go to
let s see
Let’s See…
  • GCIT
  • Who wants to play…
    • ID Theft Faceoff?
    • Invasion of the Wireless Hackers?
    • Phishing Scams?
  • Quiz Time for all!
    • http://www.sonicwall.com/phishing/
  • Virus, Worm or Trojan Horse???
just being evil
Just Being Evil!
  • Sometimes the goal is to shut a network down & disrupt the organization
    • Can cost a business lots of money!!
denial of service dos
Denial of Service (DoS)
  • In general, DoS attacks seek to:
    • Flood a system or network with traffic to prevent legitimate network traffic from flowing
    • Disrupt connections between a client and server to prevent access to a service
    • Some are not used much anymore, but can be
  • SYN flooding
  • Ping of Death
dos ping of death
DoS- Ping of Death!
  • Sending SO MANY LARGE pings, the server can’t respond to anyone else!
  • DDoS
    • Attack by multiple systems infected with DDoS code
    • Sends useless data to server
    • Overwhelms system & it crashes
brute force
Brute Force
  • Fast computer used to guess passwords or decipher encryption code
  • Brute force attacks can cause a denial of service due to excessive traffic to a specific resource or by locking out user accounts
  • Try
  • Name 3 types of social engineering.
    • Pretexting, Phishing, Vishing
  • How are you targeted in a pretexting attack?
    • Over the phone
  • You click on a pop-up window to claim a “prize.” A program was installed w/out you knowing & now an attacker has access to your system. What is this called?
    • Trojan Horse
  • Which attack doesn’t need activation and copies itself across the network?
    • Worm
  • A server is busy responding to a SYN with an invalid source IP address. What’s the attack?
    • SYN Flooding
other threats
Other Threats
  • Not all threats do damage
    • Some collect info
  • Collecting Info/Invading Privacy
    • Spyware
    • Tracking Cookies
    • Adware
    • Pop-ups
  • Program that gathers personal info w/out your permission
    • Info sent to advertisers
  • Usually installed unknowingly
    • Downloaded, installing a program, click on pop-up
  • Can slow computer down or make settings changes
  • Can be difficult to remove
tracking cookies
Tracking Cookies
  • Form of spyware
    • Not always bad
  • Records info about user when they visit web sites
    • Allows personalization
    • Many sites require them
  • Form of spyware
  • Records info about user when they visit web sites
  • For advertising purposes
    • Pop-ups & pop-ups of ads
pop ups and pop unders
Pop-Ups (and Pop-Unders)
  • Adware EXCEPT doesn’t collect any info
  • Pop-ups
    • Open in front of the current browser window
  • Pop-unders
    • Open behind the current browser window
  • Unwanted bulk mail from advertisers
  • Spammer sends
    • Often sent through unsecured servers
    • Can take control of computers
    • Then sent from that computer to others
  • On average, how many spam emails are sent to a person per year?
    • 3000
  • You visit a web site and see this annoying advertising tactic that appears in a new window. What is it?
    • Pop-up
  • This type of advertising is sent to many, many people. The advertiser uses no marketing scheme.
    • Spam
  • This form of spyware is not always bad & can be used for personalization of a site.
    • Cookies
security measures
Security Measures
  • You can’t eliminate security breaches
    • You can minimize the risks
  • Policy
  • Procedures
  • Tools & Applications
security policy
Security Policy
  • Formal statement of rules when using tech
    • Acceptable use policy
    • Detailed handbook
  • What should be included?
  • Let’s review some policies…
  • GCIT
  • Klondike Middle School
  • Clearview High School
more security procedures
More Security Procedures
  • The procedures help implement the policies
  • Some of the security tools and applications used in securing a network include:
rut roh
Rut Roh!
  • Computer starts acting abnormally
  • Program does not respond to mouse and keystrokes.
  • Programs starting or shutting down on their own.
  • Email program begins sending out large quantities of email
  • CPU usage is very high
  • There are unidentifiable, or a large number of, processes running.
  • Computer slows down significantly or crashes
anti virus software
Anti-Virus Software
  • Preventive & Reactive tool
  • Features
    • Email checker
    • Dynamic Scanning (checks files when accessed)
    • Scheduled scans
    • Auto update
  • When a virus is known, they will update it
anti spam
  • Spam sends unwanted emails
    • Code takes over PC to send more
  • The software ID’s it & places it in junk folder or deletes it
  • On PC or on email server
    • ISP may have a spam filter
other ways to prevent spam
Other ways to prevent spam
  • Keep anti-virus up to date
  • Don’t forward suspect emails
  • Ignore the virus warning email
  • Report spam to admin to be blocked
  • Don’t open attachment from people you don’t know
anti spyware
  • Spyware & Adware cause virus-like symptoms
    • Use computer resources
  • This software can detect & delete them
  • Pop-Up Blockers
  • This policy says what you can & can’t do on a network or computer.
    • Acceptable use policy
  • T or F. A-V companies like McAfee can protect you against every known virus & future viruses.
    • False
  • T or F. It is possible for legitimate emails to be marked as spam.
    • True
  • T or F. With A-V & anti-spyware installed, you need not worry about opening email attachments. You are completely safe!
    • False…why?
  • Other than on your PC, Google’s Gmail servers have this security software installed.
    • Spam Filter
what s a firewall
What’s a firewall?
  • Controls traffic between networks & helps prevent unauthorized access
    • Permits or denies data
firewall decisions based on
Firewall Decisions Based On
  • Packet Filtering
    • Based on IP or MAC addresses
  • Application / Web Site Filtering
    • Based on the application.
    • Websites can be blocked by URL or keywords
  • Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI)
    • Must be responses from internal host
    • DoS saver
gcit dmz
  • Web Server (has GCIT web site)
  • Email Server (allows outside access)
  • File Server (allows file access from outside)
firewall dmz at home port forwarding wireless ap internal
Firewall & DMZ at home/ Port Forwarding/ Wireless AP internal
  • Let’s say you have a web server
  • It needs to handle web request while you still protect you internal network
  • Create a DMZ with the Linksys
lab 8 4 2 4
  • DMZ Setup Lab
    • Set up DMZ
    • Set up port forwarding
    • You can even set up time/day access (will not do in the lab)
  • Which type of firewall…
    • Is dedicated hardware & the best?
      • Appliance
    • Is on a single computer?
      • Personal
  • What is an area that is accessible to internal PC’s & outside PC’s?
    • DMZ
  • What 3 security measures can be set up for a server on your network that needs public access?
    • DMZ, port forward, time/day
  • How many firewalls would a big business use?
    • Two firewalls
  • What of these can you setup in a wireless access point for security?
    • Popup stopper, Change the default IP address, Update the antivirus software, Tighten the cable between the AP and PC
      • Change the AP default IP from to 192.168.x.x
  • Which process allows firewall entrance into the network ONLY IF it was requested from an internal PC?
    • SPI
is your network vulnerable
Is Your Network Vulnerable?
  • Tools to help identify where attacks can occur
    • Number of hosts on a network
    • The services hosts are offering
    • The OS and update versions on hosts
    • Packet filters and firewalls in use
  • Lab
    • Vulnerability Analysis
lab 8 4 3 2
  • Vulnerability Analysis
8 basic security1

8: Basic Security

Networking for Home & Small Business