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INCOTERMS 2000 . First published by the ICC in 1936 ICC (International Chamber of Commerce) Official Rules for the Interpretation of Trade terms. Purpose is to provide a set of international rules for the interpretation of the most commonly used trade terms.

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Incoterms 2000
INCOTERMS 2000

  • First published by the ICC in 1936

  • ICC (International Chamber of Commerce) Official Rules for the Interpretation of Trade terms.

  • Purpose is to provide a set of international rules for the interpretation of the most commonly used trade terms.

  • 10 categories describing where risks lie between seller and buyer

  • International Commercial Terms (INCOTERMS)


Incoterms purpose and scope
Incoterms – Purpose and Scope

  • Pricing terms, shipping terms, sales terms

  • Apply to international trade

  • Define the rights and obligation of the parties to the contract of sale with respect to the delivery of goods sold.


Incoterms 2000

Four Groups of Incoterms

Less

Control

More

Control

1) “E” group

2) “F” group

3) “C” group

4) “D” group

Seller

Buyer

More

Control

Less

Control

3


Exw ex works named place
EXW EX WORKS (…named place)

  • The “E”-term is the term in which the seller’s obligation is at its minimum.

  • Seller delivers when goods placed at disposal of buyer


Incoterms 2000

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Incoterms 20001
Incoterms 2000

  • The “F” –terms require the seller to deliver goods for carriage as instructed by the buyer.

  • FCA

  • FAS

  • FOB


Fca free carrier named place
FCAFREE CARRIER (named place)

  • Seller delivers when goods, cleared for export, to the carrier nominated by the buyer at a named place.

  • Term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport.

  • Seller obligated to load goods on arriving vehicle if it arrives at the seller’s premises.

  • Seller not obliged to unload goods from his vehicle.


Incoterms 2000

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Fas free alongside ship named port of shipment
FAS -FREE ALONGSIDE SHIP(…named port of shipment)

  • Seller delivers when goods, cleared for export, are placed alongside the vessel

  • Seller obliged to clear goods for export.

  • The buyer bears all costs and risks of loss or damage to the goods from that moment.

  • Terms can be used for sea or inland waterway transport only.



Fob free on board named port of shipment
FOB – FREE ON BOARD(…named port of shipment)

  • Seller delivers when goods, cleared for export, pass the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment.

  • The buyer bears all costs and risks of loss or damage to the goods from that point.

  • Term can be used for sea or inland waterway transport only.

  • If intent is not to deliver goods across the ship’s rail, use FCA



Incoterms 20002
Incoterms 2000

  • The “C” –terms require the seller to contract for carriage at his expense – to a specified point.

  • CFR

  • CIF

  • CPT

  • CIP


Cfr cost and freight named port of destination
CFR – COST AND FREIGHT(…named port of destination)

  • Seller delivers when goods, cleared for export, pass the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment.

  • The seller pays the costs and freight necessary to bring goods to port of destination, but the buyer bears the risk of loss and additional costs occurring after delivery.

  • Term can be used for sea or inland waterway transport.

  • If intent is not to deliver goods across the ship’s rail, use CPT



Cif cost insurance and freight named port of destination
CIF – COST, INSURANCE AND FREIGHT(…named port of destination)

  • Seller delivers when goods, cleared for export, pass the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment.

  • The seller pays the costs and freight necessary to bring goods to port of destination, but the buyer bears the risk of loss and additional costs occurring after delivery.

  • The seller procures marine insurance, against buyer’s risk of loss. Seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum cover.

  • Term can be used for sea or inland waterway transport.

  • If intent is not to deliver goods across the ship’s rail, use CIP.



Cpt carriage paid to named place of destination
CPT – CARRIAGE PAID TO (…named place of destination)

  • Seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier.

  • The seller pays the costs of carriage necessary to bring goods to named destination, but the buyer bears the risk of loss and additional costs occurring after delivery.

  • Term may be used irrespective of mode of transport.



Cip carriage and insurance paid to named place of destination
CIP – CARRIAGE AND INSURANCE PAID TO (…named place of destination)

  • Seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, the the carrier.

  • The seller pays the costs of carriage to named destination, but the buyer bears the risk of loss and additional costs occurring after delivery.

  • The seller procures insurance against buyer’s risk of loss. Seller is required to obtain insurance only on a minimum cover.

  • Term may be used irrespective of mode of transport.


Incoterms 2000

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Incoterms 20003
Incoterms 2000 destination)

  • The “D” –terms require the seller to take the goods all the way to destination at the border or within the country of import.

  • DAF

  • DES

  • DEQ

  • DDU

  • DDP


Ddu delivered duty unpaid named place of destination
DDU – DELIVERED DUTY UNPAID (…named place of destination)

  • Seller delivers goods to the buyer, not cleared for import, and not unloaded, at the named place of destination.

  • Seller bears all costs and risks (except duty) to bring goods to the named place of destination.

  • Term may be used irrespective of mode of transport.

  • If delivery is to take place at the port, quay or on board a vessel, DES or DEQ should be used.


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Ddp delivered duty paid named place of destination
DDP – DELIVERED DUTY PAID (…named place of destination) destination)

  • Seller delivers goods to the buyer, cleared for import, and not unloaded, at the named place of destination.

  • Seller bears all costs and risks, including import duty, to bring goods to the named place of destination.

  • Term may be used irrespective of mode of transport. If delivery is to take place at the port, quay or on board a vessel, DES or DEQ should be used.


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Daf delivered at frontier named place
DAF – DELIVERED AT FRONTIER (…named place) destination)

  • Seller delivers goods, cleared for export, at disposal of buyer on arriving means of transport.

  • Not unloaded, not cleared for import at point at frontier before customs border of adjoining country.

  • Term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport when goods are delivered at a land frontier.

  • If delivery is to take place in the port of destination, DES or DEQ should be used.


Incoterms 2000

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Des delivered ex ship named port of destination
DES – DELIVERED EX SHIP (…named port of destination) destination)

  • Seller delivers goods at disposal of buyer on board the ship.

  • Not cleared for import at the named port of destination.

  • Seller bears all costs and risks to bring goods to the named port before discharging.

  • Term used only for delivery by sea.

  • If the seller is to bear the costs of discharging the goods, DEQ should be used.


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Deq delivered ex quay named port of destination
DEQ – DELIVERED EX QUAY (…named port of destination) destination)

  • Seller delivers goods, not cleared for import, at disposal of buyer on the quay at the named port of destination.

  • Seller bears all costs and risks to bring goods to the named port of destination and discharging the goods on the quay.

  • Term used only for delivery by sea.


Incoterms 2000

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Mode of transport and appropriate incoterm any mode of transport
Mode of Transport and Appropriate Incoterm - Any Mode of Transport

  • EXW

  • FCA

  • CPT

  • CIP

  • DAF

  • DDU

  • DDP


Mode of transport and appropriate incoterm maritime and inland waterway transport only
Mode of Transport and Appropriate Incoterm – Maritime and Inland Waterway Transport Only

  • FAS

  • FOB

  • CFR

  • CIF

  • DES

  • DEQ


In summary
In Summary Inland Waterway Transport Only

  • Buyer’s Objective: maximize control of supply chain, use FOB, FCA, or FAS

  • Must name a place after the INCOTERM

  • INCOTERMS are negotiable!

  • INCOTERMS should appear on all commercial documents

  • Establish a close relationship with a forwarder

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