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Quality Basics. Defining Quality. ASQ (American Society for Quality): “quality is a subjective term for which each person has his or her own definition” – www.asq.org What’s your definition?. Defining Quality. In technical usage, quality can have two meanings:

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defining quality
Defining Quality
  • ASQ (American Society for Quality): “quality is a subjective term for which each person has his or her own definition” – www.asq.org
  • What’s your definition?
defining quality3
Defining Quality
  • In technical usage, quality can have two meanings:
    • the characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs, and
    • a product or service free of deficiencies
defining quality gurus
Defining Quality - “Gurus”
  • Deming - “non-faulty systems”
    • Out of the Crisis
  • Juran - “fitness for use”
    • Quality Control Handbook
  • Crosby - “conformance to requirements”
    • Quality is Free
defining quality different views
Defining Quality- Different Views
  • Customer’s view (more subjective)
    • the quality of the design (look, feel, function)
    • product does what’s intended and lasts
  • Producer’s view
    • conformance to requirements (Crosby)
    • costs of quality (prevention, scrap, warranty)
    • increasing conformance raises profits
  • Government’s view
    • products should be safe
    • not harmful to environment
stout s view
Stout’s View

Quality =

Performance

Expectation

value based approach
Manufacturing dimensions

Performance

Features

Reliability

Conformance

Durability

Serviceability

Perceived quality

Service dimensions

Reliability

Responsiveness

Assurance

Empathy

Tangibles

Value-based Approach
slide8
Armand Feigenbaum -
    • author: Total Quality Control (1961)
    • “quality is a customer determination based on the customer’s actual experience with the product or service, measured against his or her requirements - stated or unstated, conscious or merely sensed, technically operational or entirely subjective - and always representing a moving target in a competitive market.”
shift to quality
Shift to Quality

Isolated

Economies

Global

Economy

Period of

change from

quantity to

quality

Focus on

quality

Focus on

quantity

Pre-World War II

1945

1990’s

history of quality paradigms
History of Quality Paradigms
  • Customer-craft quality paradigm:
    • – design and build each product for a particular customer.
    • – producer knows the customer directly.
  • Mass production and inspection quality paradigm:
    • focus on designing and building products for mass consumption.
    • larger volumes will reduce costs and increases profits.
    • push products on the customer (limit choices).
    • quality is maintained by inspecting and detecting bad products.
  • TQM or “Customer Driven Quality” paradigm:
    • potential customers determine what to design and build.
    • higher quality will be obtained by preventing problems
need for a new strategy
Need for a New Strategy
  • Foreign markets have grown
    • Import barriers and protection are not the answer.
  • Consumers are offered more choices
    • They have become more discriminating.
  • Consumers are more sophisticated
    • They demand new and better products.
why quality improvement
Why Quality Improvement?
  • Global Competition
    • Economic and political boundaries are slowly vanishing
    • The 1950’s slogan “Built by Americans for Americans” is very far from reality in the 2000’s.
why quality improvement13
Why Quality Improvement?
  • It pays
    • Less rework, fewer mistakes, fewer delays, and better use of time and materials
    • In United States today, 15 to 20% of the production costs are incurred in finding and correcting mistakes.
how do organizations compete
How Do Organizations Compete?
  • Most common competitive measures:
    • Quality (both real and perceived)
    • Cost
    • Delivery (lead time and accuracy)
  • Other measures
    • safety,
    • employee morale,
    • product development (time-to-market, innovative products)
contrasting approaches
Passive / Reactive

Setting acceptable quality levels

Inspecting to measure compliance

Proactive / Preventive

Design quality in products and processes

Identify sources of variation (processes and materials)

Monitor process performance

Contrasting Approaches
the quality hierarchy
The Quality Hierarchy

Incorporates QA/QC activities

into company-wide system aimed

at satisfying the customer

Total Quality

Management

Prevention

SPC

Actions to insure products or

services conform to company

requirements

Quality Assurance

Operational techniques to make

inspection more efficient and to

reduce the costs of quality.

Quality Control

Detection

SQC

Inspection

Inspect products