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China and the New Imperialism. p. 411. British and Chinese Trade. Prior to the 1800s, Chinese rulers placed strict limits on foreign trade China traded silk, porcelain, and tea, in exchange for gold and silver China experienced a trade surplus - exporting more than it imported

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british and chinese trade
British and Chinese Trade
  • Prior to the 1800s, Chinese rulers placed strict limits on foreign trade
  • China traded silk, porcelain, and tea, in exchange for gold and silver
  • China experienced a trade surplus- exporting more than it imported
  • Other nations experienced a trade deficit- buying more goods than they were selling to China
the opium war
The Opium War
  • In the late 1700s, British merchants began trading opium, grown in India for Chinese tea
  • Many Chinese became addicted to opium, so they started to sell silver so they could afford it, disrupting China’s economy
  • Chinese government outlaws opium, but Britain refuses to stop trading, citing the right to free trade
  • In 1839, Opium War takes place. Chinese are easily defeated by Britain’s far superior weaponry
unequal treaties
Unequal Treaties
  • In 1842, Britain forced China to sign the Treaty of Nanjing
  • In it, Britain received a huge indemnity- payment for losses in the war, also gained the island of Hong Kong
  • The treaty also granted British citizens in China extraterritoriality- the right to live under their own laws and be tried in their own courts
taiping rebellion weakens china
Taiping Rebellion Weakens China
  • By the 1800s, the Qing dynasty was in decline
  • Peasants were burdened for many reasons:
    • Population explosion
    • Tax evasion of the rich
    • Official Corruption
  • Taiping Rebellion- peasants rebelling against the Qing dynasty
    • Lasted from 1850-1864
    • Eventually the rebels were defeated
    • Caused the death of between 20-30 million Chinese
launching reform efforts
Launching Reform Efforts
  • Educated Chinese were divided over the need to adopt western ways
  • China’s wealth and taxes came from the land, no need for new industries
  • Missionaries/new technologies would challenge the Confucian order
self strengthening movement
“self Strengthening” movement
  • Imported Western technology
  • Set up factories to make modern weapons
  • Developed shipyards, railroads, mining, and light industry
  • Translated Western works on science, government, and the economy
  • Government did not back the movement, so ultimately, it failed
sino japanese war
Sino-Japanese War
  • Western powers and nearby Japan moved rapidly ahead
  • Japan began to modernize in 1868, joining the Western imperialists in the competition for a global empire.
  • Japan easily defeated in the Sino-Japanese War, forcing China to give up the island of Taiwan.
spheres of influence
Spheres of Influence
  • Following the Sino-Japanese defeat, countries fought for spheres of influence in China.
  • Many European nations, along with Russia, carved up China and occupied territory throughout the country.
  • The U.S. called for an Open Door Policy in China, which kept Chinese trade open to everyone on an equal basis.
hundred days of reform
Hundred Days of reform
  • Chinese citizens were furious that China refused to modernize as Japan had.
  • In 1898, GuangXu started the 100 days of reform
  • New laws set out to modernize civil service exams, streamline government, and encourage new industries
    • Conservatives rallied against the reform, and imprisoned Xu
qing dynasty falls
Qing Dynasty Falls

In 1899, a group of Chinese had formed a secret society, the Righteous Harmonious Fists

They trained in martial arts, and were dubbed, the “Boxers”

They wanted to force all foreign influence out of China

In 1900, they attacked foreigners across China and were easily defeated.

aftermath
Aftermath
  • After China is defeated again, even conservatives turn to the idea of Westernization.
  • Expanded their school systems to teach science and math
  • Expanded their economy
    • Mining, shipping, railroads, banking, and exporting crops grew
    • Chinese business class emerged, and a new working class began to press for rights
three principles
Three Principles
  • The Chinese government introduced a constitutional monarchy by the early 1900s
  • Sun Yat-sen was a popular spokesman for the new Chinese republic
  • First principle- Nationalism
  • Second principle- Democracy
  • Third principle- Livelihood
  • Sun Yat-sen eventually became president of the new Chinese Republic in 1911 and was constantly at war with itself or foreign invaders.