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Geology I like to move it move it. Part 1 Age of Earth and scientific classification Part 2 Plate tectonics and water. Continental Drift. Theory. 1912 Alfred Weagner proposed the theory that Earth's crust is slowly drifting on a liquid core. 

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Geology i like to move it move it

GeologyI like to move it move it

Part 1 Age of Earth and scientific classification

Part 2 Plate tectonics and water


1912 Alfred Weagner proposed the theory that Earth's crust is slowly drifting on a liquid core. 

His theory was not accepted in his lifetime...but now there is a lot of evidence

National Geographic Continental Drift


250 million years ago


Fit of continents


Distribution of rocks & 



-Paleoclimates- Rocks deposited at the Earth's surface (sedimentary) reflect the climate and latitude of which they form

-Glacial sediments


Plate movement
Plate Movement

  • “Plates” of lithosphere are moved around by the underlying hot mantle convection cells

Geology i like to move it move it

Spreading ridges

As plates move apart new material is erupted to fill the gap

Effect: Underwater mountains

Divergent Boundaries

Geology i like to move it move it

Age of Oceanic Crust

Courtesy of

Evidence earth s magnetic field
Evidence:Earth’s Magnetic Field

  • Movement of Fe (l) in the outer core as the planet rotates.

  • Behaves like permanent magnet near center of Earth

  • Magnetic north (compass measures) differs from geographic north of planet’s axis of rotation.

How can it be monitored
How can it be monitored?

  • Basaltic lava with iron minerals act like compasses.

  • When they cool, they are magnetized in the direction of the surrounding magnetic field.

  • Paleomagnetism = Study of ancient magnetism

Earth s magnetic field

Earth’s Magnetic Field

But magnetic north is not at the north pole

BUT…..Magnetic North is NOT at the North Pole

And the magnetic field reverses
AND…the Magnetic Field Reverses

  • Field reverses ~1 time every 200,000 years on average.

  • 400 times in last 330 million years.

  • Last reversal was 780,000 years ago.



What is a fault
What is a fault?

A fault is a fracture in the Earth's crust that occurs when stress is applied to quickly or when stress is too great. 

It can be either vertical or horizontal

A vertical fault is comprised of a footwall and a hanging wall

Normal fault
Normal Fault

Tension pulls rocks apart

causing the hanging wall

block to be pulled down. 

Normal does not mean

most common! 

Why do you think it is called a normal fault?

At what type of plate boundary do normal faults occur? 

Reverse fault
Reverse Fault

Opposite of the

normal fault

Compression pushes

rocks together and 

causes the hanging

wall to be pushed up

At what plate boundary do reverse faults occur?

Strike slip fault
Strike-Slip Fault

A strike-slip fault happens 

when rocks slide past 

each other (shearing)

Moves left or right laterally

with very little horizontal


At which plate boundary do strike slip faults occur?

What is a common example of a strike slip fault?


  • Earthquake is the vibration of Earth caused by a rapid release of energy

    • Often caused by slippage along a break in Earth’s crust

  • Focus & Epicenter

    • Focus is point w/in Earth where earthquake starts

    • Energy is released in waves

    • Epicenter is location on surface directly above the focus

Geology i like to move it move it

  • Faults

    • Earthquakes are usually associated w/large fractures in Earth’s crust & mantle called faults

    • Faults are fractures in Earth where movement has occurred

Causes of earthquakes
Causes of Earthquakes

  • Scientists studied 1906 San Francisco quake along San Andreas fault

    • Some areas moved 4.7 m on one side of fault compared to the other

    • Hypothesis was developed – force causes rocks to bend & store elastic energy, eventually friction which holds rocks together is overcome, rocks slip at the weakest point (focus) releasing energy allowing rocks to return to original shape

Geology i like to move it move it

  • Elastic rebound hypothesis

    • Explains that when rocks are deformed, they bend then break, releasing stored energy

    • Most earthquakes are produced by the rapid release of elastic energy stored in rock that has been subjected to great forces

    • When strength of rock is exceeded, it suddenly breaks, causing vibrations of an earthquake

Geology i like to move it move it

  • Aftershocks & foreshocks

    • Aftershocks are smaller earthquakes produced after a major earthquake

    • Foreshocks are small earthquakes produced before a major earthquake; can be days or years before quake

Earthquake waves
Earthquake waves

  • Surface waves

    • Travel along Earth’s outer layer

    • Move up-down & side-to-side

    • Causes ground & anything on it to move

    • Most destructive

    • AKA L waves or Rayleigh waves

Geology i like to move it move it

Earthquake waves

  • Body waves

    • P waves

      • Push-pull waves

      • Compression waves

      • Change volume of material they pass through

Geology i like to move it move it

Earthquake waves

  • S waves

    • Most particles @ right angles to their travel

    • Transverse waves

    • Change shape of material they pass through, SOLIDs only

Geology i like to move it move it

Earthquake waves

  • Seismogram shows all 3 types of waves

    • P waves arrive first – fastest traveling

    • S waves arrive second

    • Surface waves (L waves) arrive last – slowest traveling

Locating an earthquake
Locating an Earthquake

  • Compare arrival times of P & S waves

    • Greater the difference = greater distance to focus

  • Earthquake distance

    • Developed using seismograms from earthquakes w/identifiable epicenters

    • 2 steps

    • 1. Find time interval btwn 1st P wave & 1st S wave

    • 2. Find on travel-time graph the equivalent time spread btwn P & S wave curves

Geology i like to move it move it

  • Earthquake direction

    • Travel-time graphs from 3 or more seismographs can be used to find exact location of earthquake’s epicenter

    • Draw circle w/diameter in distance, where they intersect = epicenter

Geology i like to move it move it

  • Earthquake zones

    • 95% of earthquakes occur in narrow zones

    • Most on outer edge of Pacific called circum-Pacific belt

    • Second belt Mediterranean-Asian belt


  • Wave caused by earthquake on ocean floor

  • Causes of tsunamis

    • Slab of ocean floor is displaced vertically along a fault

    • Vibration can also set an underwater landslide into motion

    • Waves travel 500-950 km/hr

    • Height in ocean is less than 1m but can reach 30m when it hits land

Geology i like to move it move it

  • Tsunami warning system

    • Tsunami warning center in Honolulu HI

      • Receives info about large earthquakes in Pacific

      • Use water level in tide gauges

      • Warnings are issued w/in 1 hr of report

      • Only 1-2 destructive tsunamis per year

Other dangers
Other Dangers

  • Landslides

    • Greatest damage to structures is from landslides & ground subsidence, or sinking of ground triggered by the vibrations

  • Fire

    • Start when there’s damage to gas & electric lines

Emergency situations
Emergency Situations

  • What should you do in a Tsunami?

  • Follow the evacuation order issued by authorities and evacuate immediately. Take your animals with you.

  • Move inland to higher ground immediately. Pick areas 100 feet (30 meters) above sea level or go as far as 2 miles (3 kilometers) inland, away from the coastline. If you cannot get this high or far, go as high or far as you can. Every foot inland or upward may make a difference.

  • Stay away from the beach. Never go down to the beach to watch a tsunami come in. If you can see the wave you are too close to escape it. CAUTION - If there is noticeable recession in water away from the shoreline this is nature's tsunami warning and it should be heeded. You should move away immediately.

  • Save yourself - not your possessions.

  • Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance - infants, elderly people, and individuals with access or functional needs.

Emergency situations1
Emergency Situations

  • What should you do in an Earthquake?

  • If Indoors

  • DROP to the ground; take COVER by getting under a sturdy table or other piece of furniture; and HOLD ON until the shaking stops. If there isn’t a table or desk near you, cover your face and head with your arms and crouch in an inside corner of the building.

  • Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and anything that could fall, such as lighting fixtures or furniture.

  • If Outdoors

  • Stay there.

  • Move away from buildings, streetlights, and utility wires.

  • Once in the open, stay there until the shaking stops. The greatest danger exists directly outside buildings, at exits and alongside exterior walls.



Vulcan- Roman God of Fire

What is a volcano
What is a volcano?

  • Volcano- Areas of earth’s surface through which magma and volcanic gases pass

  • Volcano comes from the Roman word Vulcan, which means “fire”

What s inside a volcano
What’s inside a volcano?

  • Magma Chamber- molten rock that feeds a volcano

  • Vents- cracks in the crust

  • What is the difference between magma and lava?

Types of volcanoes
Types of Volcanoes

  • Shield Volcano

  • Built from layers of lava

  • Non-explosive eruptions

  • Not very steep, but can be big

Types of volcanoes1
Types of Volcanoes

  • Cinder Cone Volcano

  • Built from pyroclastic material

  • Moderately explosive, short eruptions

  • Small in size, steep slopes

Types of volcanoes2
Types of Volcanoes

  • Composite Volcanoes

  • Most common type

  • Explosive eruptions and lava flow

  • Built from pyroclastic material AND lava

What is a volcano1
What is a volcano?

  • Magma Chamber- molten rock that feeds a volcano

  • Vents- cracks in the crust (chimney)

  • What is the difference between magma and lava?




magma chamber

How and why do volcanoes erupt
How and why do volcanoes erupt?

  • Hot, molten rock (magma) is buoyant (has a lower density than the surrounding rocks) and will rise up through the crust to erupt on the surface.

    • Same principle as hot air rising, e.g. how a hot air balloon works

  • When magma reaches the surface it depends on how easily it flows (viscosity) and the amount of gas (H2O, CO2, S) it has in it as to how it erupts.

  • Large amounts of gas and a high viscosity (sticky) magma will form an explosive eruption!

    • Think about shaking a carbonated drink and then releasing the cap.

  • Small amounts of gas and (or) low viscosity (runny) magma will form an effusive eruption

    • Where the magma just trickles out of the volcano (lava flow).

Explosive eruptions
Explosive Eruptions

  • Explosive volcanic eruptions can be catastrophic

  • Erupt 10’s-1000’s km3 of magma

  • Send ash clouds >25 km into the stratosphere

  • Have severe environmental and climatic effects

  • Hazardous!!!

Mt. Redoubt

Above: Large eruption column and ash cloud from an explosive eruption at Mt Redoubt, Alaska

Explosive eruptions1
Explosive Eruptions

  • Three products from an explosive eruption

    • Ash fall

    • Pyroclastic flow

    • Pyroclastic surge

Pyroclastic flows on Montserrat, buried the capital city.

Effusive eruptions
Effusive Eruptions dangerous!!!

  • Effusive eruptions are characterised by outpourings of lava on to the ground.


Courtesy of

Volcanic hazards
Volcanic Hazards dangerous!!!

  • Pyroclastic flow

  • Lahars/Mud flows

  • Pyroclastic fall

  • Lava flow

  • Noxious Gas

  • Earthquakes

Courtesy of

Pyroclastic flow
Pyroclastic dangerous!!! Flow

  • Hot, fast moving, high particles concentration flows of gas, rock and ash

  • For example, eruption of Vesuvius, Italy in 79 AD destroyed the city of Pompeii

Pompeii 79ad
Pompeii (79AD) dangerous!!!

On August 24, 79AD Mount Vesuvius literally blew its top, erupting tonnes of molten ash, pumice and sulfuric gas miles into the atmosphere. Pyroclastic flows flowed over the city of Pompeii and surrounding areas.

Pompeii 79ad1
Pompeii (79AD) dangerous!!!

Pyroclastic flows of poisonous gas and hot volcanic debris engulfed the cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae suffocating the inhabitants and burying the buildings.

Pompeii 79ad2
Pompeii (79AD) dangerous!!!

The cities remained buried and undiscovered for almost 1700 years until excavation began in 1748. These excavations continue today and provide insight into life during the Roman Empire.

Vesuvius today
Vesuvius today dangerous!!!

  • Vesuvius remains a hazardous volcano with heavily populated flanks:

    • around 1.5 million people live in the city of Naples alone

    • Naples is situated approx. 30 km from Vesuvius

    • Pyroclastic flows can flow up to 100 km from source!



Bay of Naples

Courtesy of

Geology i like to move it move it

Mt Peleé, Martinique (1902) dangerous!!!

  • An eruption of Mt Peleé in 1902 produced a pyroclastic flow that destroyed the city of St. Pierre.



29 000 people died only 2 survived why
29,000 people died…. dangerous!!!Only 2 survived! Why?

Pyroclastic flow direct impact
Pyroclastic dangerous!!! Flow - direct impact

Courtesy of

Pyroclastic fall
Pyroclastic Fall dangerous!!!

  • Ash load

    • Collapses roofs

    • Brings down power lines

    • Kills plants

    • Contaminates water supplies

    • Respiratory hazard for humans and animals

Lava flow
Lava Flow dangerous!!!

  • It is not just explosive volcanic activity that can be hazardous. Effusive (lava) activity is also dangerous.

Earthquakes dangerous!!!

  • Large volumes of magma moving through the shallow crust can cause large earthquakes.

  • This can lead to building collapse, slope failure and avalanches

Geology i like to move it move it

So…. dangerous!!!

How do we minimize the risk of active volcanoes?

Volcano monitoring
*Volcano Monitoring dangerous!!!

Volcano Observatories are set up on all active volcanoes that threaten the human population. These are designed to monitor and potentially to predict the eruptive behaviour of the volcano in question.