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Northern Grapes Symposium 2012. Farming Flavors. Understanding genetic capabilities underlying maturity and flavor development for existing varieties and more effective breeding Anne Fennell South Dakota State University.

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Northern Grapes Symposium 2012


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farming flavors

Farming Flavors

Understanding genetic capabilities underlying maturity and flavor development for existing varieties and more effective breeding

Anne Fennell

South Dakota State University

The Northern Grapes Project is funded by the USDA’s Specialty Crops Research Initiative Program of the National Institute for Food and Agriculture, Project #2011-51181-30850

slide3

Establish baseline gene, metabolite and sensory information needed to identify characteristics that can be used to develop biomarkers for fruit ripening and signature flavor maturity

Flavor is a combination of seed and tannin maturity, primary and secondary metabolites and volatile aroma compounds

Standard harvest parameters (˚Brix, pH, TA) are only weakly correlated with flavor maturity

slide4

Year 1 and 2

Frontenac and Marquette

Physical and molecular characterization of berry development and ripening

Lag phase

Veraison

20˚Brix

22˚Brix

24˚Brix*

*Sensory analysis of juice and wine

Practicalwinery.com

slide5

Comprehensively track what genes are activated, what metabolites are produced, and what sensory descriptors develop

  • Analyses:
  • gene expression
  • volatile metabolite (aroma)
  • primary metabolites (sugars, and organic and amino acids)
  • secondary metabolites (tannins, flavonoids, anthocyanins, stilbenes, other phenolics, and terpenoids)
  • Sensory (juice and wine)
  • Statistical integration to identify novel and
  • signature fruit characters and
  • positive or negative biomarkers
slide6

Fruit development and ripening

Fennell

Berry development documentation

Berry development and ripening gene Expression and pathway

analysis

volatile metabolites
Volatile metabolites

Koziel and Maurer

GC-MS-olfactometry

Dhrmadhikari

TA, Ph, Phenolics

slide8

Grape Berry 1˚ & 2˚ Metabolite Profiling by LC-MS: Hegeman

Polyphenolics:

Organic acids:

resveratrol

quercetin

malic acid

tartaric acid

polydatin

Anthocyanins:

malvidin

slide9

Juice and wine sensory analysis

Cook

Juice & Wine 24˚Brix

Vickers

Juice and wine sensory analysis

Trained Panelist: aroma, sweetness, acidity, bitterness, flavor descriptors and astringency

slide10

Identification of potential biomarkers

He and Ye

Multivariate regression method (multiple O2PLS) to integrate analysis of transcriptomic, metabolomic, volatile metabolite, and sensory data

Identification of potential biomarkers

Kashif et al. 2011. Metabolic characterization paltinate German wines according to sensory attributes, varieties and vintages using NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analyses. Journal: Journal of Biomolecular NMR Vol. 49 Issue3

DOI: 10.1007/s10858-011-9487-3

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OutcomesCataloging of berry ripening gene expression and resultant volatile, primary metabolites and secondary metabolites and sensory characters will provide industry benchmarks for this new group of cultivars. These measures of fruit maturity will be useful in: -developing biomarkers for selecting high quality cultivars, -measuring the impact of viticultural and winemaking practices -enabling development of the next generation of field portable devices to sample/analyze growing grapes for harvesting decisions