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Confronting Suburban Poverty In Metropolitan Kansas City. Elizabeth Kneebone Brookings Institution. Today, more of the nation’s poor live in suburbs than in cities. Number in poverty, central cities versus suburbs, 1970-2012. Source: Brookings analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data.

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Elizabeth Kneebone Brookings Institution


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    1. Confronting Suburban Poverty In Metropolitan Kansas City Elizabeth Kneebone Brookings Institution

    2. Today, more of the nation’s poor live in suburbs than in cities Number in poverty, central cities versus suburbs, 1970-2012. Source: Brookings analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data

    3. Between 2000 and 2012, the suburban poor population increased in 93 of the top 95 metros Minneapolis, 126% Chicago, 93% Salt Lake City, 124% Las Vegas, 144% Atlanta, 159% Austin, 162% Source: Brookings Institution analysis of ACS and decennial census data

    4. By 2012, 59 of the top 95 metros found the majority of their region’s poor located in the suburbs Seattle, 68% Chicago, 52% Detroit, 57% Salt Lake City, 73% Boston, 71% Washington DC, 71% San Francisco, 57% Atlanta, 88% Miami, 84% Source: Brookings Institution analysis of ACS data

    5. The poor population in Johnson County grew by 144% between 2000 and 2012 Source: Brookings analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data.

    6. As poverty has spread beyond older, inner-ring suburbs, Johnson County experienced the fastest pace of growth Percent Change in Poor Population, 2000 to 2008-12 -8.2 to 25.0 25.1 to 50.0 50.1 to 75.0 75.1 to 100.0 100.1 to 126.9 No significant change Source: Brookings analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data

    7. Johnson County accounts for a growing share of the region’s poor Source: Brookings analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data

    8. Tract Poverty Rate, 2000 0.0 to 10.0 10.1 to 20.0 20.1 to 30.0 30.1 to 40.0 40.1 to 52.9 Poverty has also become more concentrated in the county and beyond Source: Brookings analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data

    9. Tract Poverty Rate, 2008-12 0.0 to 10.0 10.1 to 20.0 20.1 to 30.0 30.1 to 40.0 40.1 to 68.6 Poverty has also become more concentrated in the county and beyond Source: Brookings analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data

    10. The poor population looks much like it did in 2000, except that it has become a bit more diverse, younger, and more educated Source: United Community Services of Johnson County

    11. In many ways, the Johnson County poor resemble the national suburban poor population, but differences exist Source: Brookings Institution and UCS analysis of ACS data

    12. Regional Economy Job Location Several factors drive suburban poverty in the Kansas City region Population Change Immigration Housing

    13. Population has grown faster in the suburbs City Suburbs Percent Change in Population, Kansas City Region, 2000 to 2012 Source: Brookings Institution analysis of ACS and Decennial Census data

    14. Immigration plays a small role in growing suburban poverty Contribution to Growth in Suburban Poor Population, 2000 to 2008-12 Source: Brookings Institution analysis of ACS and Decennial Census data

    15. Most subprime lending and foreclosures were suburban Share of 2004-08 Loans Outside Kansas City, MO Source: Chris Shildt, Naomi Cytron, Elizabeth Kneebone and Carolina Reid, “The Subprime Crisis in Suburbia: Exploring the Links between Foreclosures and Suburban Poverty”

    16. Jobs sprawl is high in the Kansas City region Share of Kansas City Region Jobs Located 10 to 35 Miles from Downtown KS, MO Source: Elizabeth Kneebone, “Job Sprawl Stalls: The Great Recession and Metropolitan Employment Location”

    17. The economic downturn left many unemployed in the suburbs Number of Suburban Unemployed, Kansas City Region Source: Brookings Institution analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics LAUS data

    18. Limited Philanthropic Resources Change in School Populations Strained Local Services Suburban poverty brings added challenges Transit Access

    19. Suburban commuters with transit can’t reach as many jobs Share of Kansas City Region Jobs Accessible to Low-income Neighborhoods within 90 Minutes via Transit Source: Tomer, Kneebone, Puentes, and Berube, “Missed Opportunity” (Brookings, 2011)

    20. There are fewer nonprofits in the suburbs… Number of Registered Nonprofit Social Service Organizations in Kansas City Region, 2012 Source: Brookings analysis of IRS 990 data

    21. …And suburban nonprofits have fewer resources per poor resident Nonprofit Human Services Revenue per Poor Individual, 2012 Source: Brookings analysis of IRS 990 data

    22. Schools are seeing low-income populations grow Share of Students Enrolled in Free and Reduced Price Lunch, Outside Kansas City, MO2005-06 to 2009-10 Source: Brookings Institution analysis of GreatSchools data

    23. Suburbs face additional challenges Lack of Capacity Extensive Fragmentation Inflexible, Unreliable Funding

    24. The legacy system of place-based anti-poverty programs developed over decades does not map easily onto the suburban landscape $82 billion81 federal programs 10 agencies Health Job Training Housing Economic Development Food Assistance Consolidated Health Centers (Community Health Centers, Migrant Health Centers, Health Care for the Homeless, Public Housing Primary Care, and School Based Health Centers); Affordable Care Act (ACA) Grants for Capital Development in Health Centers; Title V Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant Program; Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Social Services Job Corps; WIA Dislocated Worker Employment and Training Activities; WIA Youth Appropriation; WIA Adult Program; WIA Dislocated Worker National Emergency Grants; YouthBuild; Learn and Serve America: School and Community Based Programs; Supported Employment State Grants; Work Opportunity Tax Credit; Child Care and Development Block Grant Emergency Food and Shelter Program; Tenant-based Rental Assistance; Sustainable Communities Regional Planning Grant Program; Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency; Housing Counseling Assistance New Markets Tax Credit ; Renewal Community Tax Incentives; Community Development Financial Institutions Program; ARRA- Investments for Public Works and Economic Development Facilities; Recovery Zone Bonds; ARRA- Economic Adjustment Assistance; Economic Development: Support for Planning Organizations; Community Economic Development; Technical Assistance; Bank Enterprise Award; Economic Development: Technical Assistance; Community Services Block Grant; Community Services Block Grant: Discretionary Awards Education Child and Adult Care Food Program; The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP); Summer Food Service Program; Commodity Supplemental Food Program; WIC Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) Substance Abuse Treatment Block Grant; Social Services Block Grant; Substance Abuse Prevention Block Grant; Community Mental Health Services Block Grant (MHSBG); Access to Recovery (ATR) Title I — Improving The Academic Achievement Of The Disadvantaged; Head Start and Early Head Start; Improving Teacher Quality State Grants; Adult Basic and Literacy Education State Grants; TRIO: Upward Bound; Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP); Teacher Incentive Fund; TRIO: Student Support Services; College Access Challenge Grant Program; Mathematics and Science Partnerships; TRIO:Talent Search; Race to the Top -- Early Learning Challenge; TRIO: Educational Opportunity Centers; TRIO: Upward Bound Math Science; Parental Information and Resource Centers; Advanced Placement Program (Advanced Placement Test Fee; Advanced Placement Incentive Program Grants); School Leadership Program; Innovative Approaches to Literacy; Assets for Independence (AFI); IRS Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA); 21st Century Community Learning Centers; Child Care Access Means Parents in School Program; Advanced Placement Incentive Program Grants; Qualified zone academy bonds (QZAB); Charter Schools Program

    25. Chicago’s south suburbs encountered these challenges during the housing crisis Cook County

    26. Chicago’s south suburbs encountered these challenges during the housing crisis Cook County 19 communities submitted a joint NSP application

    27. Chicago’s south suburbs encountered these challenges during the housing crisis Cook County 11 municipalities received individual awards

    28. Innovators across the country are finding creative ways to navigate the legacy place-based anti-poverty system

    29. Health Job Training Housing Education Food Assistance Economic Development Consolidated Health Centers (Community Health Centers, Migrant Health Centers, Health Care for the Homeless, Public Housing Primary Care, and School Based Health Centers); Affordable Care Act (ACA) Grants for Capital Development in Health Centers; Title V Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant Program; Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Social Services Emergency Food and Shelter Program; Tenant-based Rental Assistance; Sustainable Communities Regional Planning Grant Program; Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency; Housing Counseling Assistance Title I — Improving The Academic Achievement Of The Disadvantaged; Head Start and Early Head Start; Improving Teacher Quality State Grants; Adult Basic and Literacy Education State Grants; TRIO: Upward Bound; Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP); Teacher Incentive Fund; TRIO: Student Support Services; College Access Challenge Grant Program; Mathematics and Science Partnerships; TRIO:Talent Search; Race to the Top -- Early Learning Challenge; TRIO: Educational Opportunity Centers; TRIO: Upward Bound Math Science; Parental Information and Resource Centers; Advanced Placement Program (Advanced Placement Test Fee; Advanced Placement Incentive Program Grants); School Leadership Program; Innovative Approaches to Literacy; Assets for Independence (AFI); IRS Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA); 21st Century Community Learning Centers; Child Care Access Means Parents in School Program; Advanced Placement Incentive Program Grants; Qualified zone academy bonds (QZAB); Charter Schools Program New Markets Tax Credit ; Renewal Community Tax Incentives; Community Development Financial Institutions Program; ARRA- Investments for Public Works and Economic Development Facilities; Recovery Zone Bonds; ARRA- Economic Adjustment Assistance; Economic Development: Support for Planning Organizations; Community Economic Development; Technical Assistance; Bank Enterprise Award; Economic Development: Technical Assistance; Community Services Block Grant; Community Services Block Grant: Discretionary Awards Job Corps; WIA Dislocated Worker Employment and Training Activities; WIA Youth Appropriation; WIA Adult Program; WIA Dislocated Worker National Emergency Grants; YouthBuild; Learn and Serve America: School and Community Based Programs; Supported Employment State Grants; Work Opportunity Tax Credit; Child Care and Development Block Grant Child and Adult Care Food Program; The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP); Summer Food Service Program; Commodity Supplemental Food Program; WIC Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) Substance Abuse Treatment Block Grant; Social Services Block Grant; Substance Abuse Prevention Block Grant; Community Mental Health Services Block Grant (MHSBG); Access to Recovery (ATR)

    30. Achieve Scale Collaborate and Integrate Fund Strategically

    31. Neighborhood Centers Inc. Metro Houston • Has an annual budget of more than $275 million, 70 different sites, and a staff of over 1,000 • Coordinates resources from 35 federal programs, state, local, and private sources to provide a seamless continuum of services • Collaborates with other area providers

    32. The Neighborhood Opportunity Network Montgomery County, MD • A collaboration between the County, nonprofits, faith based community, and local philanthropy • Targets high need areas with integrated and culturally competent services • Builds awareness and community networks through door knocking, Neighbors Exchange, and Neighbor Circles

    33. Municipal Collaboratives West and South Cook County, IL • 5 municipalities formed the West Cook County collaborative and 24 municipalities participate in the South Cook County collaborative • Each partners with regional institutions and is supported by local funders • Break down policy silos to address housing, transportation, and community development

    34. Identify and reduce barriers Commit to enterprise-level funding Improve systems and networks Promote high-performance organizations Reward collaborative approaches Promote tools that leverage public & private resources Support smart consolidation Develop consistent, comparable data sources Catalyze regional capacity In the near term, policymakers, funders, and practitioners can learn from these innovations and work to… Achieve Scale Collaborate and Integrate Fund Strategically

    35. Creating a Metropolitan Opportunity Challenge could help bring these solutions to scale in regions across the country Federal Place-Based Anti-Poverty Programs $82 Billion; 81 Programs; 10 Agencies Re-purpose 5% : $4 billion

    36. You can read more about the Metropolitan Opportunity Challenge and the contents of the book on our new website www.ConfrontingSuburbanPoverty.org

    37. The website provides a host of helpful resources: Profiles of the top 100 metros Case studies of innovators Tips for taking action Video Infographic

    38. ekneebone@brookings.edu www.ConfrontingSuburbanPoverty.org