Chapter nineteen
1 / 40

Chapter Nineteen - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

Chapter Nineteen. Early Adulthood: Psychosocial Development. PowerPoints prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College. Theories of Adulthood. Many theories describe, analyze, and predict the transformations that occur during adulthood

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter Nineteen' - minjonet

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Chapter nineteen l.jpg

Chapter Nineteen

Early Adulthood:

Psychosocial Development

PowerPoints prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College

Theories of adulthood l.jpg
Theories of Adulthood

Many theories describe, analyze, and predict the transformations that occur during adulthood

Different theories about psychological needs reach similar conclusions

Love and work l.jpg

Two basic needs: affiliation and achievement

or affection and instrumentality

Maslow: hierarchy of needs

Erikson: intimacy vs. isolation

Love and Work

Ages and stages l.jpg
Ages and Stages

Patterns of the Past

by 20s: identity

by 30s: intimacy

by 40s: generativity

Adult lives today “are less orderly and predictable than stage models suggest”

The social clock l.jpg
The Social Clock

Culturally set timetable that establishes when various events and endeavors in life are appropriate

What are some of the appropriate timetables in the United States?

The social clock cont l.jpg
The Social Clock, cont.

  • Developed vs. Developing Nations

    • developed nations now permit grandmothers to be college graduates, while developing nations do not

    • developing nations encourage teens to be mothers, while developed nations discourage this practice

  • Rich and Poor

    • the lower the SES, the sooner a person is expected to reach life’s milestones

Intimacy l.jpg

Need for Intimacy

meeting it depends on affiliation, affection, interdependence, love

Two primary sources are close friendships and romantic partnerships


Friendship l.jpg

Better than the family in buffering against stress, as guide to self-awareness, and as a source of positive feelings like joy

Choosing young adult friends l.jpg
Choosing Young-Adult Friends

Physical attractiveness

Apparent availability (willingness to chat)

Absence of exclusion criteria

Frequent exposure to each other

Gender differences in friendship l.jpg
Gender Differences in Friendship

Conversations and Expectations

women  self-disclosure

men  external matters—sports, politics, work

female-female pattern may better reduce loneliness and self-absorption

male-male pattern may be more effective and efficient, especially in work situations

Gender differences in friendship cont l.jpg
Gender Differences in Friendship, cont.

  • Friendships Between Men and Women

    • cross-sex friendships allow learning about common humanity and let people help each other gain skills

    • problems may arise when a platonic relationship is sexualized or there are conflicts of expectations

  • Same sex friendships may be most effective and efficient

    • especially in the workplace

Development of love and marriage l.jpg
Development of Love and Marriage

Sternberg’s Theory of love

1) passion 2) intimacy 3) commitment

7 forms of love based on presence or absence of three components above

in West, consummate love— a combination of all three—is the ideal form

difficult to achieve consummate love

familiarity and security diminish passion

Contact and courtship l.jpg

Throughout history marriages commonly arranged

still common today in many nations and certain cultures

Typical U.S. pattern today—initiated and sustained by the two people involved

duration and seriousness increase until, couples marry, typically 10 years after their first love affair

Courtship follows predicable pattern—from passion to intimacy

Contact and Courtship

Living together l.jpg
Living Together

Cohabitation— a couple’s living together in a committed sexual relationship without being formally married

increasingly common

cohabitation not just for young adults

slightly more than half of all women aged 25-40 years have cohabited

Living together cont l.jpg
Living Together, cont.

  • Cohabitation does not necessarily benefit the participants

    • one study found people who cohabitate much less happy and healthy, and less satisfied with financial status than are married couples

    • in another study, cohabiting relationships were 3 times as likely to be abusive than marriages

    • in a third, compared to single adults, cohabitants are likelier to have alcohol problems

Marriage l.jpg

Not like it “used to be”

proportion of unmarried adults is higher than at any time in the past century

10 percent of brides are virgins

nearly one-half of all births are to single mothers who are increasingly unlikely to marry the fathers of their babies

Marriage cont l.jpg
Marriage, cont.

  • Not like it “used to be,” cont.

    • 20 percent of first births conceived before marriage

    • divorce rate is 49 percent of marriage rate

    • the rate of first marriages in young adulthood lowest in 50 years

Marriage cont18 l.jpg
Marriage, cont.

  • Marriage, still most enduring evidence of couple commitment, is celebrated in every culture in the world by a wedding

    • hoped-for-results: a love that deepens over the years, as bond cemented by

      • birth of children

      • weathering economic and emotional turbulence

      • surviving serious illness or other setbacks

      • sharing social and financial commitments

Marriage cont19 l.jpg
Marriage, cont.

  • Worldwide research says married people are happier, healthier, and richer

What makes marriages work l.jpg
What Makes Marriages Work

Developmentally, marriage is a useful institution

children generally thrive when two parents are committed to their well-being

What makes marriages work cont l.jpg
What Makes Marriages Work, cont.

  • One developmental factor affecting success of marriage is maturity of the partners

  • A second factor is degree of similarity, or homogamy—marriage within same group

    • heterogamy—marriage outside of group

    • social homogamy—similarity of couple’s interests and role preferences

What makes marriages work cont22 l.jpg
What Makes Marriages Work, cont.

  • Marital Equity

    • social exchange theory

    • in modern marriages, what matters most is perception of fairness, not absolute equality

Same sex partners l.jpg

Long-term homosexual partnerships are more common and open today

2-5 percent of all U.S.adults spend some part of adulthood in such relationships

Homosexuals generally have same relationship issues as heterosexuals

Same-Sex Partners

Divorce l.jpg
Divorce today

Influenced by social and political context

affects many lives for years

United States has highest divorce rate

almost 1 in 2 first marriages end in divorce

Historically, an increase, but stabilizing

one reason: lower marriage rate

The role of expectations l.jpg
The Role of Expectations today

People today expect more from marriage partners than in the past, but expectations are not always as well defined

The developmental impact of divorce l.jpg

Initially worse than expected in today




financial stability

social interaction


The Developmental Impact of Divorce

Domestic violence l.jpg

Violence in intimate relationships has multiple causes today

social pressures that create stress, cultural values, personality pathologies, and drug and alcohol addiction

common couple violence—1 or both partners engage in verbal and physical attack

intimate terrorism—1 partner systematically isolates, degrades, and punishes the other

Domestic Violence

Domestic violence cont l.jpg

Intimate terrorism today less prevalent than common couple violence

Perpetrator usually anti-social and violent in many ways

Leads to battered-wife syndrome, with woman not simply physically beaten but broken socially and psychologically

Domestic Violence, cont.

Domestic violence cont29 l.jpg
Domestic Violence, cont. today

  • Similarities Between 2 Types of Domestic Violence

    • jealous male partner doesn’t want female partner to talk to other men

    • male partner tries to limit female partner’s contact with family and friends

    • male partner insists on knowing who female partner is with and where she is at all times

    • Difference Between 2 Types of Domestic Violence

  • But in intimate terrorism, partner seeks to exert violent control over the other

Importance of work l.jpg
Importance of Work generative

Develops and uses personal skills and talents

Provides structure for daily life

Work can help a person to

develop and use personal skills

express unique creative energy

aid and advise coworkers, as a mentor or friend

contribute to larger community via product or service

New patterns of employment l.jpg

Restructuring generative






typical career sequence

Manufacturing estimated to shrink by 1/3 between 1995-2005

New Patterns of Employment

New patterns of employment cont l.jpg
New Patterns of Employment, cont. generative

  • Workplace characterized by ongoing reorganization and growing automation

  • Timing and pace of jobs are changing

  • Burden of these new work patterns falls especially on young adults

Diversity in the workplace l.jpg
Diversity in the Workplace generative

A major social change is most adult women are employed

motherhood no longer considered impediment to employment

Gender and ethnic diversity are increasing in every developed nation

glass ceiling (invisible barrier impeding rise of both groups)

Diversity in the workplace cont l.jpg
Diversity in the Workplace, cont. generative

Work teams function best when they are diverse

Work requires same relationship skills as friendship or marriage

Parenthood l.jpg
Parenthood generative

Adult Development

having children, nurturing them, and launching them into the world has a major impact on the parent’s development

birth of a child brings conflict and challenges and begins the lifelong process of interdependence

Children affect their parents l.jpg

The bond is reciprocal generative

Challenges emerge at every stage of child’s development

Few young adults anticipate the time required for parenting

Children Affect Their Parents

Employed parents l.jpg

Benefits and Problems generative

role overload

role buffering

Logistics in Everyday Life

Employed Parents

Children and divorce l.jpg
Children and Divorce generative

Children make divorce more complicated

Financial burden of child rearing on custodial parent

Only one-half of fathers pay full child support

Alternative routes to parenthood l.jpg
Alternative Routes to Parenthood generative

Roughly one-third of North American adults become


adoptive parents

foster parents