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Chapter Nineteen. Early Adulthood: Psychosocial Development. PowerPoints prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College. Theories of Adulthood. Many theories describe, analyze, and predict the transformations that occur during adulthood

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Chapter nineteen l.jpg

Chapter Nineteen

Early Adulthood:

Psychosocial Development

PowerPoints prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College


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Theories of Adulthood

Many theories describe, analyze, and predict the transformations that occur during adulthood

Different theories about psychological needs reach similar conclusions


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Two basic needs: affiliation and achievement

or affection and instrumentality

Maslow: hierarchy of needs

Erikson: intimacy vs. isolation

Love and Work


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Ages and Stages

Patterns of the Past

by 20s: identity

by 30s: intimacy

by 40s: generativity

Adult lives today “are less orderly and predictable than stage models suggest”


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The Social Clock

Culturally set timetable that establishes when various events and endeavors in life are appropriate

What are some of the appropriate timetables in the United States?


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The Social Clock, cont.

  • Developed vs. Developing Nations

    • developed nations now permit grandmothers to be college graduates, while developing nations do not

    • developing nations encourage teens to be mothers, while developed nations discourage this practice

  • Rich and Poor

    • the lower the SES, the sooner a person is expected to reach life’s milestones


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Need for Intimacy

meeting it depends on affiliation, affection, interdependence, love

Two primary sources are close friendships and romantic partnerships

Intimacy


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Friendship

Better than the family in buffering against stress, as guide to self-awareness, and as a source of positive feelings like joy


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Choosing Young-Adult Friends

Physical attractiveness

Apparent availability (willingness to chat)

Absence of exclusion criteria

Frequent exposure to each other


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Gender Differences in Friendship

Conversations and Expectations

women  self-disclosure

men  external matters—sports, politics, work

female-female pattern may better reduce loneliness and self-absorption

male-male pattern may be more effective and efficient, especially in work situations


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Gender Differences in Friendship, cont.

  • Friendships Between Men and Women

    • cross-sex friendships allow learning about common humanity and let people help each other gain skills

    • problems may arise when a platonic relationship is sexualized or there are conflicts of expectations

  • Same sex friendships may be most effective and efficient

    • especially in the workplace


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Development of Love and Marriage

Sternberg’s Theory of love

1) passion 2) intimacy 3) commitment

7 forms of love based on presence or absence of three components above

in West, consummate love— a combination of all three—is the ideal form

difficult to achieve consummate love

familiarity and security diminish passion


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Throughout history marriages commonly arranged

still common today in many nations and certain cultures

Typical U.S. pattern today—initiated and sustained by the two people involved

duration and seriousness increase until, couples marry, typically 10 years after their first love affair

Courtship follows predicable pattern—from passion to intimacy

Contact and Courtship


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Living Together

Cohabitation— a couple’s living together in a committed sexual relationship without being formally married

increasingly common

cohabitation not just for young adults

slightly more than half of all women aged 25-40 years have cohabited


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Living Together, cont.

  • Cohabitation does not necessarily benefit the participants

    • one study found people who cohabitate much less happy and healthy, and less satisfied with financial status than are married couples

    • in another study, cohabiting relationships were 3 times as likely to be abusive than marriages

    • in a third, compared to single adults, cohabitants are likelier to have alcohol problems


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Marriage

Not like it “used to be”

proportion of unmarried adults is higher than at any time in the past century

10 percent of brides are virgins

nearly one-half of all births are to single mothers who are increasingly unlikely to marry the fathers of their babies


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Marriage, cont.

  • Not like it “used to be,” cont.

    • 20 percent of first births conceived before marriage

    • divorce rate is 49 percent of marriage rate

    • the rate of first marriages in young adulthood lowest in 50 years


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Marriage, cont.

  • Marriage, still most enduring evidence of couple commitment, is celebrated in every culture in the world by a wedding

    • hoped-for-results: a love that deepens over the years, as bond cemented by

      • birth of children

      • weathering economic and emotional turbulence

      • surviving serious illness or other setbacks

      • sharing social and financial commitments


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Marriage, cont.

  • Worldwide research says married people are happier, healthier, and richer


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What Makes Marriages Work

Developmentally, marriage is a useful institution

children generally thrive when two parents are committed to their well-being


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What Makes Marriages Work, cont.

  • One developmental factor affecting success of marriage is maturity of the partners

  • A second factor is degree of similarity, or homogamy—marriage within same group

    • heterogamy—marriage outside of group

    • social homogamy—similarity of couple’s interests and role preferences


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What Makes Marriages Work, cont.

  • Marital Equity

    • social exchange theory

    • in modern marriages, what matters most is perception of fairness, not absolute equality


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Long-term homosexual partnerships are more common and open today

2-5 percent of all U.S.adults spend some part of adulthood in such relationships

Homosexuals generally have same relationship issues as heterosexuals

Same-Sex Partners


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Divorce today

Influenced by social and political context

affects many lives for years

United States has highest divorce rate

almost 1 in 2 first marriages end in divorce

Historically, an increase, but stabilizing

one reason: lower marriage rate


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The Role of Expectations today

People today expect more from marriage partners than in the past, but expectations are not always as well defined


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Initially worse than expected in today

health

happiness

self-esteem

financial stability

social interaction

achievement

The Developmental Impact of Divorce


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Violence in intimate relationships has multiple causes today

social pressures that create stress, cultural values, personality pathologies, and drug and alcohol addiction

common couple violence—1 or both partners engage in verbal and physical attack

intimate terrorism—1 partner systematically isolates, degrades, and punishes the other

Domestic Violence


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Intimate terrorism today less prevalent than common couple violence

Perpetrator usually anti-social and violent in many ways

Leads to battered-wife syndrome, with woman not simply physically beaten but broken socially and psychologically

Domestic Violence, cont.


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Domestic Violence, cont. today

  • Similarities Between 2 Types of Domestic Violence

    • jealous male partner doesn’t want female partner to talk to other men

    • male partner tries to limit female partner’s contact with family and friends

    • male partner insists on knowing who female partner is with and where she is at all times

    • Difference Between 2 Types of Domestic Violence

  • But in intimate terrorism, partner seeks to exert violent control over the other



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Importance of Work generative

Develops and uses personal skills and talents

Provides structure for daily life

Work can help a person to

develop and use personal skills

express unique creative energy

aid and advise coworkers, as a mentor or friend

contribute to larger community via product or service


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Restructuring generative

work

workers

employers

schedule

teamwork

typical career sequence

Manufacturing estimated to shrink by 1/3 between 1995-2005

New Patterns of Employment


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New Patterns of Employment, cont. generative

  • Workplace characterized by ongoing reorganization and growing automation

  • Timing and pace of jobs are changing

  • Burden of these new work patterns falls especially on young adults


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Diversity in the Workplace generative

A major social change is most adult women are employed

motherhood no longer considered impediment to employment

Gender and ethnic diversity are increasing in every developed nation

glass ceiling (invisible barrier impeding rise of both groups)


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Diversity in the Workplace, cont. generative

Work teams function best when they are diverse

Work requires same relationship skills as friendship or marriage


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Parenthood generative

Adult Development

having children, nurturing them, and launching them into the world has a major impact on the parent’s development

birth of a child brings conflict and challenges and begins the lifelong process of interdependence


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The bond is reciprocal generative

Challenges emerge at every stage of child’s development

Few young adults anticipate the time required for parenting

Children Affect Their Parents


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Benefits and Problems generative

role overload

role buffering

Logistics in Everyday Life

Employed Parents


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Children and Divorce generative

Children make divorce more complicated

Financial burden of child rearing on custodial parent

Only one-half of fathers pay full child support


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Alternative Routes to Parenthood generative

Roughly one-third of North American adults become

stepparents

adoptive parents

foster parents