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OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH. Research Methodology Class. Contents:. Concepts of research The need for research Types of research Steps in conducting research. Concepts of Research. Exercise 1: Which of these cases can be classified as research? Case 1:
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OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH Research Methodology Class
Contents: • Concepts of research • The need for research • Types of research • Steps in conducting research
Concepts of Research Exercise 1: Which of these cases can be classified as research? • Case 1: Mr. Ahmad prepared a paper on “computer usage in secondary schools” after reviewing literature on the subject available in his university library and called it a piece of research.
Case 2 Mr. Muthu says that he has researched and completed a document which gives information about the age of his students, their SPM results, their parents income and distance of their schools from the District Office. • Case 3: Mr. Lim participated in a workshop on curriculum development and prepared what he calls, a research report on the curriculum for building technicians. He did this through a literature survey on the subject and by discussing with the participants of the workshop.
Consider the following case which is an example of research: • A general manager of a car producing company was concerned with the complaints received from the car users that the car they produce have some problems with rating sound at the dash board and the rear passenger seat after few thousand kilometers of driving. • He obtained information from the company workers to identify the various factors influencing the problem. • He then formulated the problem and generated guesses (hypotheses). • He constructed a checklist and obtained requisite information from a representative sample of cars. • He analyzed the data thus collected, interpreted the results in the light of his hypotheses and reached conclusions.
From the case, we found that the researcher: • went through a sequence of steps which were in order and thus systematic. • did not just jump at the conclusions, but used a scientific method of inquiry in reaching at conclusions. • The two important characteristics of research are : • it is systematic • it follows a scientific method of enquiry.
Definition of Research? • Hunting for facts or truth about a subject • Organized scientific investigation to solve problems, test hypotheses, develop or invent new products • Research is about discovery, the testing of hypothesis and ideas • The outcome of research is new knowledge leading to improve understanding of mechanisms and the development of new and improved procedure
According to Wikipedia, Research is a human activity based on intellectual investigation and aimed at discovering, interpreting, and revising human knowledge on different aspects of the world. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so.
What is Research? • Research is systematic, because it follows certain steps that are logical in order. These steps are: • Understanding the nature of problem to be studied and identifying the related area of knowledge. • Reviewing literature to understand how others have approached or dealt with the problem. • Collecting data in an organized and controlled manner so as to arrive at valid decisions. • Analyzing data appropriate to the problem. • Drawing conclusions and making generalizations.
Why do we need research? • To get PhDs, Masters and Bachelors?? • To provide solutions to complex problems • To investigate laws of nature • To make new discoveries • To develop new products • To save costs • To improve our life • Human desires
Examples of research • Turing Test - The Imitation Game • Nipah Virus Encephalitis –Clinical features of Nipah Virus Encephalitis among Pig farmers in Malaysia • Impact of Facebook - Impact of the use of Facebook amongst students of high school age with Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD)
Impact of the use of Facebook amongst students of high school age with Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD) The paper presents innovative research findings on the use of Facebook made by students with Social Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, of high school age. It examines the impact of this online platform on their peer relations and their adaptation within school.The working hypothesis of the study was that this technological platform might enable students experiencing a variety of difficulties in the classroom to rectify and address these by technological means, particularly with regards to representation of self and relations with peers. A mixed methodology framework has been adopted for this study, involving both quantitative semi-directive questionnaires addressed to students themselves and a qualitative content analysis on the Facebook platform used by the students – more particularly the Wall application. Findings suggest that Facebook has become of extreme importance for students with SEBD in their adaptation to school and their management of peer relations. They show complex patterns of modification of self image, on the part of SEBD students, and dynamic involvement with peers occurring on the Facebook platform. The outcomes are numerous as (i) teachers must become aware of these complex and subtle mechanisms, (ii) impact on behaviour and learning may be substantial and must be monitored, (iii) this may offer rich lessons with regards to use of technology by children experiencing difficulties at school, or ‘Millenium learners’ generally. This has important repercussions for SEBD students and their mode of inclusion, but also for students generally in the mainstream context.
What is Computer Science Research? A human activity based on the intellectual investigation of aspects of the world related to the discipline of Computer Science for the purpose of discovering new knowledge, interpreting existing knowledge or revising erroneous or incomplete knowledge.
Defining Research Problem • One of the hardest problems with doing research in any field of science is selecting a problem.
Choosing the right problem/topic • Selecting a problem/topic is highly influenced by the personality of the person picking it. • In general, a good problem/topic for an individual has the following characteristics: • You find the problem interesting • You feel the problem is something you can tackle in a reasonable amount of time. • You think you might be able to make a contribution to solving the problem or part of it. • If any of these characteristics is missing in the perspective problem/topic you examine, it is time to find a new problem/topic!
Stating the Problem • Some famous words: • The current study investigates . . . • The focus of this study will be on . . . • The present study is designed to examine . . . • The primary goal of this study is . . . • The primary concern of this research is . . . • This research concentrates on . . . • The research problem for this study is to describe the . . . • This study examines the relationships among . . . • This project is concerned with . . • This study is an attempt to . . .
Stating the Objectives • Some famous words: • The main purpose of this study is . . . • The objective of this research is to determine . . . • The primary goal of this study is . . . • The aim of this project is . . . • The principal objective of this study is . . .