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Cell Structure. Organelles. B. Organelles (little organs) 1. Control a. Nucleus -contains genetic material -stores DNA -surrounded by a double membrane with pores -directs all cell activities -contains the nucleolus. 2. Energy Related

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cell structure

Cell Structure



B. Organelles (little organs)

1. Control

a. Nucleus

-contains genetic material

-stores DNA

-surrounded by a double

membrane with pores

-directs all cell activities

-contains the nucleolus


2. Energy Related

i. Chloroplast (in plants only)


-Contains pigment chlorophyll

-Site of photosynthesis


2. Energy Related (cont.)

b. Mitochondria

- “powerhouse of the cell”

- Site of cellular respiration

- Where ATP is formed


3. Membranous Sacs & Canals

a. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

-miniature circulatory system

-series of tubular canals

-serves to transport materials

Smooth ER- transports lipids

Rough ER-transports proteins


b. Ribosomes

-small spherical structures

-made of RNA

-site of Protein Synthesis

-may be free (in cytoplasm)


-attached (on the rough ER)


c. Vacuole


-used for storage (food, water, etc.)

-1 large in all plants,

- several small in only some animals


d. Lysosome

-storage sac

-contains digestive enzymes

- “suicide bag”

Ex. Membranes present between fingers

and toes in early embryos


e. Golgi Body (Complex/Apparatus)

-series of flattened sacs (disc-like)

-packages cell secretions (products)

Ex. Goblet Cell & Mucous


4. Cytoskeleton & Movement

-give support and internal structure to cell

-aid in moving organelles (form a track)

-give support & internal structure to cell

-important in muscle cell contraction


d. Flagellum

-only on animal cells

-long hair-like projection in whip-like motion

-used to propel the cell

-made of microtubules


e. Cilia

-only in animal cells

-used to propel cells

(uses an oar-like motion)

-used in organisms to move materials

Ex. Line respiratory tract and move debris

move egg cells down the fallopian tube

plant vs animal cells
Cell wall

Rigid shape


1 large vacuole

Lacks cell wall

Flexible shape

No chloroplasts

Several small vacuoles

Cilia & flagella may be present

Plant vs. Animal Cells