carlos r villa national high magnetic field laboratory
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Carlos R. Villa National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. Tesla Tales. NHMFL Overview. One Of Three National Labs In The Southeast U.S. One Of Nine High Magnetic Field Labs In The World Only One In Western Hemisphere Largest And Highest Powered In The World. NHMFL Overview. User Laboratory

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carlos r villa national high magnetic field laboratory
Carlos R. Villa

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

Tesla Tales

nhmfl overview
NHMFL Overview
  • One Of Three National Labs In The Southeast U.S.
  • One Of Nine High Magnetic Field Labs In The World
    • Only One In Western Hemisphere
    • Largest And Highest Powered In The World
nhmfl overview1
NHMFL Overview
  • User Laboratory
    • Close to 1000 User Visits in 2010
    • NSF Funded
    • Research Free To Scientist
  • Research In Many Fields (Not Just Magnets!!)
    • Biology, Chemistry, Biomedical, Geology, Engineering, Geochemistry, Materials Science, Physics, Microscopy…
center for integrating research learning
Center for Integrating Research & Learning
  • Educational component of NHMFL’s grant
  • K-12 education outreach
    • 10,961 students visited this school year
  • Professional development
  • Workshops and conferences

ret 2010
RET 2010
  • RET program
    • 6 weeks in the summer
    • $3600 stipend
    • REU also available
magnet review
Magnet Review
  • Gauss
    • Measurement Of Magnetic Field
    • Named For Carl Friedrich Gauss
  • Tesla
    • Measurement Of Larger Magnetic Fields
    • Named For Nikola Tesla
    • 10,000 Gauss = 1 Tesla
tesla tales
Tesla Tales
  • Magnetism
    • Ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, diamagnetic
  • 1820 Revolution
    • Oersted & Ampere
  • Faraday’s laws of induction
  • Lenz’s Law
  • Free electron theory of conduction
  • BCS theory of superconductivity
  • Motion of electrons create magnetic fields
  • In some atoms, spins cancel out
    • Pauli exclusion
  • Whenever all electrons spin the same direction: magnetic field is produced
  • Magnetic domains
    • In magnets: lined up
ferromagnetism permanent magnets
Ferromagnetism: Permanent Magnets
  • Electrons tend to line up in groups (Domains)
  • Domains reinforce other domains
    • Turn material magnetic
      • Examples: Refrigerator Magnets, Bar Magnets, Magnetite, Horseshoe Magnets, Hematite, etc…
  • Field can be lost
    • Curie Point
    • Electric Current
      • Degaussing
    • Bang It
ferromagnetism temporary magnets
Ferromagnetism: Temporary Magnets
  • Domains temporarily aligned
  • Will keep magnetic field until tampered
    • Examples:
      • Paperclips, scissors, staples, thumb tacks, pins, screwdrivers, refrigerator door, car doors, etc…
      • Anything that is magnetic, but will not keep its field
paramagnetism temporary magnets
Paramagnetism: Temporary Magnets
  • No force aligning domains
    • Randomly distributed
  • Domains temporarily aligned by strong field
  • Will lose magnetic field when original field is removed
    • Examples: Plastics, aluminum can, copper wire, gold jewelry, tungsten, etc…
diamagnetism the anti magnets
Diamagnetism: The Anti-Magnets
  • Domains temporarily aligned by strong field
    • Will align in order to oppose original field
  • Faraday’s second law of induction
    • When a material whose atoms do not normally have a magnetic field is placed in a strong field, their electrons will adjust in such a way as to create their own magnetic field opposing the external one.
ferromagnetism lab magnetic fields
Ferromagnetism Lab: Magnetic Fields
  • Magnets attract and repel
  • Seeing fields
    • Bar magnet
    • As many compasses as possible
ferromagnetism lab temporary magnets
Ferromagnetism Lab: Temporary Magnets
  • Paper clips
    • Argument driven inquiry
    • How long will temporary magnets hold?
      • 18 months!
    • Do they have poles?
      • They attract and repel!
    • Can they be unmagnetized?
      • Yes, but they can also hold fields!
ferromagnetism lab compass creation
Ferromagnetism Lab: Compass Creation
  • Magnetize An Item
  • Allow It To Float
    • Must Turn Freely
      • Needle
      • Petri Dish
      • Coffee Stirrer
      • Water
      • Permanent Magnet
diamagnetism lab
Diamagnetism Lab
  • Superconductors are diamagnetic
    • YBCO or BSSCO works well
      • Kit available from Colorado Superconductor Inc.
1820 oersted discovery
1820: Oersted Discovery
  • An electrical current can create a magnetic field
  • Oersted set up lecture demonstration
    • Used battery to supply current
    • Showed compass needle deflecting near the wire
oersted lab
Oersted Lab
  • Deflect a compass needle
    • Battery
    • Aluminum foil
    • Compass
    • Wire
    • Assorted other items
  • Place the compass:
    • Above the wire
    • Below the wire
1820 ampere s law
1820: Ampere’s Law
  • Moving electrical charges produce magnetic fields
  • Simple experiment
    • Two straight wires
    • Current passed through
    • Wires bowed toward or away
  • Led to electromagnets
ampere lab
Ampere Lab
  • Materials
    • Copper wire
    • Iron rod (or nail)
    • Battery
  • Extensions:
    • 2 batteries
      • In line?
    • Aluminum, wooden rod
      • Will they work?
ampere lab part ii
Ampere Lab: Part II
  • Right hand rule
    • Direction of field (Biot-Savart Law)
  • Poles (Winding direction)
    • Use compass
  • Variables:
    • Neatness
    • Number of winds
    • Wire gauge
    • Battery strength
1831 faraday s laws
1831: Faraday’s Laws
  • A change in magnetic field produces an electric current
    • Induction
  • Magnetic flux: The change needed to induce current
faraday lab
Faraday Lab
  • Use copper wire to attach LED lights on a plastic pipe.
  • Drop NIB magnet through pipe (and through copper wires)
  • Induction of electricity
1835 lenz s law
1835: Lenz’s Law
  • An induced current in a wire (by flux) will flow to create a field that opposes the flux
  • Eddy currents created
  • Used in magnetic braking systems
    • Rollercoasters
lenz lab
Lenz Lab
  • Changing Magnetic Flux Produces An Induced Electric Field
  • Copper Tube, NIB Magnet
  • Eddy Currents
1900 free electron theory
1900: Free Electron Theory
  • Electrical conduction in a solid is caused by the bulk motion of electrons
    • Each metal atom contributes an electron that is free to roam
    • Voltage briefly accelerates the electrons
      • Resistance
free electron theory lab
Free Electron Theory Lab
  • Current electricity
    • Electrons flow through a wire
      • Slow movement
    • Circuit needed
  • Complete circuits using Alien Ball
  • Turn on the light bulb
    • Turn on two light bulbs
    • Create more advanced circuits
      • Parallel & series
1957 bcs theory
1957: BCS Theory
  • BCS: Bardeen, Cooper, Schreiffer
  • At low temperatures, some metals lose resistance
    • Atoms nearly stationary
  • Superconductivity results from the formation of Cooper pairs (Two electrons acting as a single particle)
    • Flow along single intertwined mass
  • Results in rapid flow of electrons
bcs lab
  • Repeat Ampere lab
  • Measure resistance with digital multimeter at each step
    • Raise temperature with hot water
    • Lower temperature with ice water
    • Lower temperature with liquid nitrogen*

* Always adhere to safety guidelines

additional resources
Additional Resources

Stop Faking It: Electricity & Magnetism

Bill Robertson

Driving Force: The Natural Magic of Magnets

James D. Livingston

additional resources1
Additional Resources

A Short History of Nearly Everything

Bill Bryson

The Nature of Science

James Trefil

additional resources2
Additional Resources

Hidden Attraction: The Mystery & History of Magnetism

Gerrit L. Verschuur

The Cold Wars: A History of Superconductivity

Jean Matricon & Georges Waysand

additional resources3
Additional Resources
    • MagLabAlpha; Science, Optics, & You; other curriculum
    • MagLab audio slideshows
  • RET Program
  • K-12 Programs
before i forget
Before I Forget
  • Business Cards
    • Please Do Not Hesitate To Contact Me With Questions, Ideas, Suggestions…
carlos r villa national high magnetic field laboratory villa@magnet fsu edu 850 644 7191
Carlos R. Villa

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

[email protected] • 850-644-7191

Thank You