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Introductory Chemistry , 3 rd Edition Nivaldo Tro. Chapter 3 Matter and Energy. Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley Hills, MA. 2009, Prentice Hall. Are matter & energy related. Matter is any particle with mass and volume Energy is simply matter that is moving

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Introductory chemistry 3 rd edition nivaldo tro

Introductory Chemistry, 3rd EditionNivaldo Tro

Chapter 3

Matter and Energy

Roy Kennedy

Massachusetts Bay Community College

Wellesley Hills, MA

2009, Prentice Hall


Are matter energy related
Are matter & energy related

  • Matter is any particle with mass and volume

  • Energy is simply matter that is moving

  • 0 Kelvin is defined as the temperature when matter does not moving

  • So temperature is related to moving mass

  • Or temperature and mass are related to energy of particles

  • That’s why any chemistry or physics equation with energy must relate mass and temperature.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Around you
Around you

  • Everything you can see, touch, smell or taste in your room is made of matter.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


What is matter
What Is Matter?

  • Matter is anything with mass.

  • Typically, we think of tiny little pieces of mass as atoms and molecules because those 117 elements behave Newtonian. There are over 200 smaller particles that behave Quantunian.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Energy it s just mass and velocity
Energy: it’s just Mass and Velocity

  • Electrical

    • Kinetic energy associated with the flow of electrical charge.

  • Heat or Thermal Energy

    • Kinetic energy associated with molecular motion.

  • Light or Radiant Energy

    • Kinetic energy associated with energy transitions in an atom.

  • Nuclear

    • Potential energy in the nucleus of atoms.

  • Chemical

    • Potential energy in the attachment of atoms or because of their position.


Atoms and molecules
Atoms and Molecules

  • Atoms are the tiny particles that make up all matter.

  • In most substances, the atoms are joined together in units called molecules.

    • The atoms are joined in specific geometric arrangements.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Any matter can exist in one of 3 states
Any matter can exist in one of 3 States

  • Solid

  • Liquid

  • Gas

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Structure determines properties
Structure Determines Properties

  • The atoms or molecules have different structures in solids, liquids, and gases − leading to different properties.


Solids
Solids

  • The particles in a solid are packed close together and are fixed in position.

    • Although they may vibrate.

  • The close packing of the particles results in solids being incompressible.

  • The inability of the particles to move around results in solids retaining their shape and volume when placed in a new container and prevents the particles from flowing.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Solids continued
Solids, Continued

  • Some solids have their particles arranged in an orderly geometric pattern—we call these crystalline solids.

    • Salt and diamonds.

  • Other solids have particles that do not show a regular geometric pattern over a long range—we call these amorphous solids.

    • Plastic and glass.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Liquids
Liquids

  • The particles in a liquid are closely packed, but they have some ability to move around.

  • The close packing results in liquids being incompressible.

  • The ability of the particles to move allows liquids to take the shape of their container and to flow. However, they don’t have enough freedom to escape and expand to fill the container.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Gases
Gases

  • In the gas state, the particles have complete freedom from each other.

  • The particles are constantly flying around, bumping into each other and the container.

  • In the gas state, there is a lot of empty space between the particles.

    • On average.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Gases continued
Gases, Continued

  • Because there is a lot of empty space, the particles can be squeezed closer together. Therefore, gases are compressible.

  • Because the particles are not held in close contact and are moving freely, gases expand to fill and take the shape of their container, and will flow.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Matter is it pure or impure

Matter

Pure Substance

Mixture

Constant Composition

Variable Composition

Homogeneous

Matter: is it pure or impure

Heterogeneous

  • Pure Substance = All samples are made of the same pieces in the same percentages.

    • Salt

  • Mixtures= Different samples may have the same pieces in different percentages.

    • Salt water

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Mixtures
Mixtures

Heterogeneous

Homogeneous

1. Made of multiple substances, whose presence can be seen.

2. Portions of a sample have different composition and properties.

1. Made of multiple substances, but appears to be one substance.

2. All portions of a sample have the same composition and properties.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3



Matter has properties
Matter has Properties

  • Physical Properties are the characteristics of matter that can be changed without changing its composition.

    • Characteristics that are directly observable.

  • Chemical Properties are the characteristics that determine how the composition of matter changes as a result of contact with other matter or the influence of energy.

    • Characteristics that describe the behavior of matter.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


H 2 o physical verses h 2 o chemical
H2O Physical verses H2O Chemical

Chapter One



Some physical properties of iron
Some Physical Properties of Iron

  • Iron is a silvery solid at room temperature with a metallic taste and smooth texture.

  • Iron melts at 1538 °C and boils at 4428 °C.

  • Iron’s density is 7.87 g/cm3.

  • Iron can be magnetized.

  • Iron conducts electricity, but not as well as most other common metals.

  • Iron’s ductility and thermal conductivity are about average for a metal.

  • It requires 0.45 J of heat energy to raise the temperature of one gram of iron by 1°C.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3



Some chemical properties of iron
Some Chemical Properties of Iron

  • Iron is easily oxidized in moist air to form rust.

  • When iron is added to hydrochloric acid, it produces a solution of ferric chloride and hydrogen gas.

  • Iron is more reactive than silver, but less reactive than magnesium.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Quiz is it a physical or chemical property
Quiz: is it a Physical or Chemical Property

  • Salt is a white, granular solid = physical.

  • Salt melts at 801 °C = physical.

  • Salt is stable at room temperature, it does not decompose = chemical.

  • 36 g of salt will dissolve in 100 g of water = physical.

  • When a clear, colorless solution of silver nitrate is added to a salt solution, a white solid forms = chemical.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Matter has properties matter can also go through changes
Matter has Properties, Matter can also go through Changes

  • Changes that alter the state or appearance of the matter without altering the composition are called physical changes.

  • Changes that alter the composition of the matter are called chemical changes.

    • During the chemical change, the atoms that are present rearrange into new molecules, but all of the original atoms are still present.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Is it a physical or chemical change
Is it a Physical or Chemical Change?

  • A physical change results in a different form of the same substance.

    • The kinds of molecules don’t change.

  • A chemical change results in one or more completely new substances.

    • Also called chemical reactions.

    • The new substances have different molecules than the original substances.

    • You will observe different physical properties because the new substances have their own physical properties.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Phase changes are physical changes
Phase Changes ArePhysical Changes

  • Boiling = liquid to gas.

  • Melting = solid to liquid.

  • Subliming = solid to gas.

  • Freezing = liquid to solid.

  • Condensing = gas to liquid.

  • Deposition = gas to solid.

  • State changes require heating or cooling the substance.

    • Evaporation is not a simple phase change, it is a solution process.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Quiz is it a physical or chemical change
Quiz: is it a Physical or Chemical change

  • Evaporation of rubbing alcohol = physical.

  • Sugar turning black when heated = chemical.

  • An egg splitting open and spilling out = physical.

  • Sugar fermenting into alcohol = chemical.

  • Bubbles escaping from soda = physical.

  • Bubbles that form when hydrogen peroxide is mixed with blood = chemical.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Separation of mixtures

Different Physical Property

Technique

Boiling point

Distillation

State of matter (solid/liquid/gas)

Filtration

Adherence to a surface

Chromatography

Volatility

Evaporation

Density

Centrifugation and

decanting

Separation of Mixtures

  • Separate mixtures based on different physical properties of the components.

    • Physical change.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Distillation different boiling points
Distillation: different boiling points

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3



Summary
Summary

  • Moving Matter has Energy. Motion is related to temperature. All energy formulas are relations between mass and temperature

  • Matter has 3 states

  • Matter has properties

  • Matter can change

States/Properties/Change

are all related to temperature

and how much you have

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Law of conservation of mass
Law of Conservation of Mass

  • Antoine Lavoisier

  • “Matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.”

  • The total amount of matter present before a chemical reaction is always the same as the total amount after.

  • butane + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water

    58 grams + 208 grams  176 grams + 90 grams

    266 grams = 266 grams

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Law of conservation of energy
Law of Conservation of Energy

  • “Energy can neither be created nor destroyed.”

  • The total amount of energy in the universe is constant. There is no process that can increase or decrease that amount.

  • Note: neither Mass nor Energy are ever destroyed

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Energy
Energy

  • The Fundamental Principle of the Universe is Energy

  • From the Greeks to Newton to Quantum Mechanics Energy is known as the capacity to do work and is simply calculated by knowing the mass and velocity of a particle.

  • The harder you swing an ax the faster you can fall a tree.

  • Guess what happens when you walk into a wall .005 mph or 500 mph

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Energy it s just mass and velocity1
Energy: it’s just Mass and Velocity

  • Electrical

    • Kinetic energy associated with the flow of electrical charge.

  • Heat or Thermal Energy

    • Kinetic energy associated with molecular motion.

  • Light or Radiant Energy

    • Kinetic energy associated with energy transitions in an atom.

  • Nuclear

    • Potential energy in the nucleus of atoms.

  • Chemical

    • Potential energy in the attachment of atoms or because of their position.


To get energy electrical thermal light nuclear chemical
To get Energy (electrical, thermal, light, nuclear, chemical)

  • You take slow moving particles and make them move faster

As slow moving water falls, gravity pulls it faster. The water falls on top of a turbine, which moves a coil in a magnet to generate electricity.


To get energy electrical thermal light nuclear chemical1
To get Energy (electrical, thermal, light, nuclear, chemical)

  • You take slow moving particles and make them move faster


To get energy electrical thermal light nuclear chemical2
To get Energy (electrical, thermal, light, nuclear, chemical)

  • You take slow moving particles and make them move faster

Binding energy is simply the amount of energy (and mass) released, when free nucleons

join to form a nucleus; a gluon is released or absorbed

Einstein's mass-energy equivalence formula E = mc² can be used to compute the binding energy


Kinds of energy kinetic and potential
Kinds of Energy chemical)Kinetic and Potential

  • Potential energy is energy that is stored; slow moving

    • Water flows because gravity pulls it downstream.

    • However, the dam won’t allow it to move, so it has to store that energy.

  • Kinetic energy is energy of motion, or energy that is being transferred from one object to another; fast moving.

    • When the water flows over the dam, some of its potential energy is converted to kinetic energy of motion.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


There s no such thing as a free ride
There’s No Such Thing as a Free Ride chemical)

When atoms contact each other, frictions is produced. You will often notice friction as sound or heat. So instead of useful energy, “anti-energy” friction slows your car down.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Units of energy
Units of Energy chemical)

  • Calorie (cal) is the amount of energy needed to raise one gram of water by 1 °C.

    • kcal = energy needed to raise 1000 g of water 1 °C.

    • food calories = kcals.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Energy use 2008
Energy Use 2008 chemical)

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Example 3 5 convert 225 cal to joules
Example 3.5—Convert 225 Cal to Joules chemical)

  • Write down the Given quantity and its unit.

Given:

225 Cal

3 sig figs

  • Write down the quantity you want to Find and unit.

Find:

? J

  • Write down the appropriate Conversion Factors.

Conversion Factors:

1 Cal = 1000 cal

1 cal = 4.184 J

  • Write a Solution Map.

Solution

Map:

Cal

cal

J

  • Follow the solution map to Solve the problem.

Solution:

  • Significant figures and round.

Round:

225 Cal = 9.41 x 105 J

3 significant figures

Units and magnitude are correct.

  • Check.

Check:


Chemical potential energy
Chemical Potential Energy chemical)

  • The amount of energy stored in a material is its chemical potential energy.

  • The stored energy arises mainly from

    • the attachments between atoms in the molecules

    • the attractive forces between molecules.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Exothermic processes
Exothermic Processes chemical)

  • When a change results in the release of energy it is called an exothermic process.

  • An exothermic chemical reaction occurs when the reactants have more chemical potential energy than the products.

  • The excess energy is released into the surrounding materials, adding energy to them.

    • Often the surrounding materials get hotter from the energy released by the reaction.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


An exothermic reaction

Surroundings chemical)

reaction

Reactants

Amount of energy released

Potential energy

Products

An Exothermic Reaction

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Endothermic processes
Endothermic Processes chemical)

  • When a change requires the absorption of energy it is called an endothermic process.

  • An endothermic chemical reaction occurs when the products have more chemical potential energy than the reactants.

  • The required energy is absorbed from the surrounding materials, taking energy from them.

    • Often the surrounding materials get colder due to the energy being removed by the reaction.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


An endothermic reaction

Surroundings chemical)

reaction

Products

Amount of energy absorbed

Potential energy

Reactants

An Endothermic Reaction

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Temperature scales
Temperature Scales chemical)

100°C

373 K

212°F

671 R

Boiling point water

298 K

75°F

534 R

Room temp

25°C

0°C

273 K

32°F

459 R

Melting point ice

-38.9°C

234.1 K

-38°F

421 R

Boiling point mercury

-183°C

90 K

-297°F

162 R

Boiling point oxygen

BP helium

-269°C

4 K

-452°F

7 R

-273°C

0 K

-459 °F

0 R

Absolute

zero

Celsius

Kelvin

Fahrenheit

Rankine


Fahrenheit vs celsius
Fahrenheit vs. Celsius chemical)

  • A Celsius degree is 1.8 times larger than a Fahrenheit degree.

  • The standard used for 0° on the Fahrenheit scale is a lower temperature than the standard used for 0° on the Celsius scale.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


The kelvin temperature scale
The Kelvin Temperature Scale chemical)

  • Both the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales have negative numbers.

    • Yet, real physical things are always positive amounts!

  • The Kelvin scale is an absolute scale, meaning it measures the actual temperature of an object.

  • 0 K is called absolute zero, all molecular motion stops.

    • 0 K = -273 °C = -459 °F.

    • Absolute zero is a theoretical value obtained by following patterns mathematically.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Kelvin vs celsius
Kelvin vs. Celsius chemical)

  • The size of a “degree” on the Kelvin scale is the same as on the Celsius scale.

    • Although technically, we don’t call the divisions on the Kelvin scale degrees; we call them kelvins!

    • That makes 1 K 1.8 times larger than 1 °F.

  • The 0 standard on the Kelvin scale is a much lower temperature than on the Celsius scale.

  • When converting between kelvins and °C, remember that the kelvin temperature is always the larger number and always positive!

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Example 3 7 convert 25 c to kelvins

° C chemical)

K

Example 3.7—Convert –25 °C to Kelvins

  • Write down the Given quantity and its unit.

Given:

-25 °C

units place

Find:

  • Write down the quantity you want to Find and unit.

K

  • Write down the appropriate Equations.

Equation:

K = ° C + 273

  • Write a Solution Map.

Solution

Map:

  • Follow the solution map to Solve the problem.

Solution:

  • Significant figures and round.

Round:

258 K

units place

Units and magnitude are correct.

  • Check.

Check:


Example 3 8 convert 55 f to celsius

° F chemical)

° C

Example 3.8—Convert 55° F to Celsius

  • Write down the Given quantity and its unit.

Given:

55 °F

units place

and 2 sig figs

Find:

  • Write down the quantity you want to Find and unit.

° C

  • Write down the appropriate Equations.

Equation:

  • Write a Solution Map.

Solution

Map:

  • Follow the solution map to Solve the problem.

Solution:

  • Significant figures and round.

Round:

12.778 °C = 13 °C

units place and 2 sig figs

Units and magnitude are correct.

  • Check.

Check:


Example 3 9 convert 310 k to fahrenheit

K chemical)

°C

°F

Example 3.9—Convert 310 K to Fahrenheit

  • Write down the Given quantity and its unit.

Given:

310 K

units place

and 3 sig figs

Find:

  • Write down the quantity you want to Find and unit.

°F

  • Write down the appropriate Equations.

Equation:

K = °C + 273

  • Write a Solution Map.

Solution

Map:

°C = K - 273

  • Follow the solution map to Solve the problem.

Solution:

  • Significant figures and round.

Round:

98.6 °F = 99 °F

units place and 2 sig figs

  • Check.

Check:

Units and magnitude are correct.


Practice convert 0 f into kelvin
Practice—Convert 0 °F into Kelvin chemical)

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Practice convert 0 f into kelvin continued
Practice—Convert 0 °F into Kelvin, Continued chemical)

°C = 0.556(°F-32)

°C = 0.556(0-32)

°C = -18 °C

K = °C + 273

K = (-18) + 273

K = 255 K

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Energy and the temperature of matter
Energy and the Temperature of Matter chemical)

  • The amount the temperature of an object increases depends on the amount of heat energy added (q).

    • If you double the added heat energy the temperature will increase twice as much.

  • The amount the temperature of an object increases depending on its mass.

    • If you double the mass, it will take twice as much heat energy to raise the temperature the same amount.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Heat capacity
Heat Capacity chemical)

  • Heat capacity is the amount of heat a substance must absorb to raise its temperature by 1 °C.

    • cal/°C or J/°C.

    • Metals have low heat capacities; insulators have high heat capacities.

  • Specific heat = heat capacity of 1 gram of the substance.

    • cal/g°C or J/g°C.

    • Water’s specific heat = 4.184 J/g°C for liquid.

      • Or 1.000 cal/g°C.

      • It is less for ice and steam.


Specific heat capacity
Specific Heat Capacity chemical)

  • Specific heat is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by 1 °C.

  • The larger a material’s specific heat is, the more energy it takes to raise its temperature a given amount.

  • Like density, specific heat is a property of the type of matter.

    • It doesn’t matter how much material you have.

    • It can be used to identify the type of matter.

  • Water’s high specific heat is the reason it is such a good cooling agent.

    • It absorbs a lot of heat for a relatively small mass.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Specific heat capacities
Specific Heat Capacities chemical)

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Heat gain or loss by an object
Heat Gain or Loss by an Object chemical)

  • The amount of heat energy gained or lost by an object depends on 3 factors: how much material there is, what the material is, and how much the temperature changed.

    Amount of Heat = Mass x Heat Capacity x Temperature Change

    q = m x C x DT

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Example 3 10 calculate amount of heat needed to raise temperature of 2 5 g ga from 25 0 to 29 9 c

m, C, chemical)DT

q

Example 3.10—Calculate Amount of Heat Needed to Raise Temperature of 2.5 g Ga from 25.0 to 29.9 °C

  • Write down the Given quantity and its unit.

Given:

m = 2.5 g, T1 = 25.0 °C,

T2= 29.9 °C, C = 0.372 J/g°C

Find:

  • Write down the quantity you want to Find and unit.

q, J

  • Write down the appropriate Equations.

Equation:

  • Write a Solution Map.

Solution

Map:

  • Follow the solution map to Solve the problem.

Solution:

  • Significant figures and round.

Round:

4.557 J = 4.6 J

2 significant figures

Units and magnitude are correct.

  • Check.

Check:


Practice calculate the amount of heat released when 7 40 g of water cools from 49 to 29 c
Practice—Calculate the Amount of Heat Released When 7.40 g of Water Cools from 49° to 29 °C

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 3


Practice calculate the amount of heat released when 7 40 g of water cools from 49 to 29 c continued

C of Water Cools from 49° to 29 °Cs m, DT

q

Practice—Calculate the Amount of Heat Released When 7.40 g of Water Cools from 49° to 29 °C, Continued

  • Sort Information

Given:

Find:

T1 = 49 °C, T2 = 29 °C, m = 7.40 g

q,J

q = m ∙ Cs ∙ DT

Cs = 4.18 J/gC (Table 3.4)

  • Strategize

Solution Map:

Relationships:

  • Follow the concept plan to solve the problem.

Solution:

  • Check.

Check:

The unit and sign are correct.