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Key Technologies for UAV Interoperability

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  1. Key Technologies for UAV Interoperability 19 November 2003 41st Annual NDIA SymposiumPresented by: Dave BuisThe Boeing Company

  2. Agenda • What is Interoperability • UAV Roles and Missions • UAV Interoperability in a System of Systems • Interoperability Technologies • Mission Management • Communications • Processing Architecture / Infrastructure • Human Systems Interface • Cooperative Adaptive Autonomy • Civil and Commercial Operations in the NAS • Summary 19 Nov 2003 – Dave Buis

  3. What is Interoperability? Vitale Garber, Interoperability OSD, NDIA, Systems Engineering Conference, October, 2002 19 Nov 2003 – Dave Buis

  4. Manned Aircraft Air Combat CAS ASW AEW Armed Recce Reactive SEAD Future UAV Potenial Non-Lethal SEAD Stand-OutAEA Strike ASuW Stand-In AEA Information Operations High Value Strike Non- Pene ISR UAV’s In Development Deep Strike Current UAVs TAC Recce Penetrating ISR Lethal SEAD Directed Energy CommRelay Cruise Missiles BDA Manned, Unmanned, or Combined Options Available to Field Commanders Military Roles & Missions for Unmanned Systems Will Continue to Expand High Mission Complexity Low High Low Likelihood of Encounter - Lethal / Integrated Threat • Mission Complexity: • Low: Preplanned and/or simple operator interaction, readily pre-programmable • Medium: Frequent near-real time decisions, compatible with machine decision logic • High: Numerous complex, real-time decisions / reactions by operator. • Highly situation dependent 19 Nov 2003 – Dave Buis

  5. Passenger Transport Manned Aircraft PAV Search & Rescue Emergency Response Satellite Repair National Automated Vehicle Highway Autonomous Construction Infrastructure Repair Illegal Activity Monitoring Cargo Transport Crime Scene Investigation Interior Inspection of Pipelines Resource Exploration Border & Drug Traffic Patrol Riot Control Fire Fighting Infrastructure & Agriculture Inspections Traffic Monitoring Fertilizer, Pesticide, Fire Retardant Application Atmospheric, Geological, Volcanic, Oceanic Monitoring Investigative Journalism of Remote/Forbidden Areas Automated Distribution Warehouse CommRelay Manned, Unmanned, or Combined Options Available to Customers Roles and Missions for Unmanned Systems will Expand into Civil and Commercial Applications High Mission Complexity Low High Low Safety Complexity • Mission Complexity: • Low - Preplanned and/or simple operator interaction, readily pre-programmable • Medium -Frequent near-real time decisions, compatible with machine decision logic • High - Numerous complex, real-time decisions / reactions by operator.Highly situation dependent 19 Nov 2003 – Dave Buis GP30110038.ppt

  6. An Unmanned System is a Network-Enabled System • Key issues: • Mission management architecture with cooperative, adaptive, autonomy • Communications (connectivity, bandwidth) 19 Nov 2003 – Dave Buis

  7. Link-16 NAVY UAVs Must be Fully Integrated Into Network Centric Operations • Key considerations: • Level of integrated operations • Manned / unmanned interoperability • Interoperable / Integrated Operating Environment • UAV Mission Management 19 Nov 2003 – Dave Buis

  8. Elements of a Mission Management Architecture Inputs Outputs Mission Management Architecture Is Central to Interoperability 19 Nov 2003 – Dave Buis

  9. Mission Management Elements Reside in Both MCS & UAV Decision Aiding (Multi Level Autonomy) Decision Aiding (Multi Level Autonomy) Air Vehicle Contingency Management Contingency Management Command Control Sensors Signal / Data Processing (e.g., Sensor Fusion, Automatic Target Cueing) MCS Stores Bandwidth Efficient Communication Bandwidth Efficient Communication Integrated Vehicle Health Management Human System Interface Human System Interface Contingency Management Contingency Management Bandwidth Efficient Communication Bandwidth Efficient Communication Mission Management Distributed Data Services CAOC & External I/F Decision Aiding (Multi Level Autonomy) Decision Aiding (Multi Level Autonomy) 19 Nov 2003 – Dave Buis

  10. Network Centric Architecture • Addressable Nodes at sensor level • Dynamic & Redundant Routing Space Air Terrestrial Information Grid Enables Data Sharing Across a Flexible Robust Network 19 Nov 2003 – Dave Buis

  11. Interoperability Considerations: • Established Ops Procedures (CONOPS) • On-Board Processing (sharing Info vs Data) • Competition for Spectrum • Bandwidth • Number of Channels (Availability) • System interfaces • Probability of Detection, Intercept, Jamming • Encryption Support Communications Integration- Digital Network of Diverse Platforms MILSTAR, Gapfiller/ Commercial Ku NTM Systems UAV Intel Broadcasts Reachbackto CONUS MMA, E2-C, Joint STARS,Rivet Joint, etc. Theater ROEand Guidance Link-16 LOS Data Link (Link-16, TCDL, MADL) EO ESM ATOs/ Dynamic Retasking Strike Package CVBG SAR GMTI LOS Data Link MCS GP24197022.ppt 19 Nov 2003 – Dave Buis

  12. Adaptable Human System Interface • Provides Mission Commander the right information to predict and anticipate • Vehicle situation /location • Target / threat environment • Reconfigurable displays for various vehicles and missions • Multiple vehicle control with single operator User-Friendly HSI Provides Command & Control for Mixed Operations 19 Nov 2003 – Dave Buis

  13. Autonomous Systems Technologiesare Critical for Interoperability Cooperative Mission Adaptive Autonomous Vehicles Mission Adaptive Autonomous Vehicles Autonomous Vehicles • Vehicle Mgmt System • Vehicle Control • Trajectory Mgmt • Flight Control • Mission Planning • Mission Mgmt System • Mission Monitoring • Decision Aiding • Collision Avoidance • Situational Awareness • Data Mining/Sensor Mgmt • Mission Health • Contingency Mgmt • Communications with • Manned Airspace/Controller • System of Systems • Integration w/Multiple • Mission Control Systems • Cooperative Autonomous • Multi-Platform Mission Control • Dynamic Re-Planning • Multi-Vehicle Health • Formation Flight • Multi-Agent Collaboration • Mixed Initiative Behaviors Cooperative Mission Adaptive Autonomous Systems Enables Higher Level Decision Making & Mission Management 19 Nov 2003 – Dave Buis

  14. Ops in the NAS End State Capabilities Fully Integrated into Class A Airspace Autonomous Conflict Avoidance with Cooperating & Non-Cooperating A/C Air Vehicle Auto-Land Weather Sensing Enhancements (Including Security) FL180 C2 “Hand-Off” Command & Control (LOS, BLOS) C, D, E Airspace C, D, E Airspace C, D, E Airspace ARTCC • ATC Commands • Airspeed • Route of Flight Surface Operations Near Real Time Weather Information @ Control Station 19 Nov 2003 – Dave Buis

  15. Steps 1&2 currently funded Achieve Routine, Safe and Reliable Access in the NAS for HALE UAV UNITE / Access 5 Standard Certificate of Airworthiness Special Airworthiness Certification STEP 4 Establish Type Certification Basis STEP 3 Experimental Certification Routine Operations Above FL 180 Through C, D, E Airspace Emergency to ROA Airport STEP 2 Routine Operations Above FL 180 Through C, D, E Airspace STEP 1 Routine Operations Above FL 180 Through Restricted Airspace Routine Operations Above FL 400 Through Restricted Airspace 19 Nov 2003 – Dave Buis

  16. Summary • Interoperability of diverse systems is critical to UAV future • Expanding roles for military applications • Civil and commercial applications • Mixed operations with manned aircraft • Technologies required for interoperability • Robust and secure communications via multiple links • Key Network Centric System Interface Standards • Adaptable cooperative autonomy for command & control of vehicle and sensors • Adaptable User-friendly Human Systems Interface • Regulatory and policy issues must be addressed to enable UAV’s to operate in the NAS 19 Nov 2003 – Dave Buis