Endangered Species By Ani Hsu Obrock, Nancy Canevari, and Vivian Zhuang
Vocabulary • Endangered Species: Animals or species that are soon to die out. Once they become extinct, they will never be seen on Earth again.
What makes a species endangered? The major causes are: • Habitat loss (#1 cause) -Deforestation • Pollution • Competition from other species • Disease • Predation • Unregulated or illegal killing- Hunting http://library.thinkquest.org/5736/causes.htm
In our presentation, we will cover these 3 causes: • Habitat Loss- Deforestation • Unregulated or illegal killing • Pollution/ Climate Change
Habitat Loss- Deforestation Focusing on Red Pandas, which is an endangered species.
Red Pandas They are becoming endangered primarily due to deforestation and destruction of their habitats. • Red pandas are a sub-breed of the more well-known giant panda. They're much smaller, however, and have red fur with white and black markings. These habitats are becoming destroyed because trees and bamboo are being cut down, eliminating the pandas' habitats and destroying their food sources. Red pandas live in China, Nepal and Myanmar, as well as other mountain forests.
How Are We Causing This? Why Is This Happening? • Humans are cutting down trees for their wood. • They are clearing forests to build structures in place of the wildlands. • Bamboo and other plants are very popular for decoration and many other uses; the pandas resources are being depleted.
If This Continues... • Red pandas are on the road to extinction and without • aid, they will probably get there. • The snow leopards and martens that prey on them will have no food to eat; they will grow endangered and could eventually die out. The bamboo and other plants that they eat will take over the ecosystem with no organisms to eat them. • The jungles will become overpopulated with plants and underpopulated with predatory species. The entire ecosystem would very likely be thrown out of whack, and this could lead to other ecosystems that rely on it to follow.
What Can We Do? • Reduce your use of paper products. This is so simple but so effective- by using reusable dishes, napkins and towels instead of paper ones, tons of paper is saved. • Use recycled paper products or ones from sustainable manufacturers, to ensure that your products were not made by the destruction of forests. • Be careful when printing. Print double-sided when possible and try to use recycled paper. • Register for online billing for credit card payments, mortgages statements, cell phone bills, etc. • Recycle, recycle, recycle!
Impact on Biogeochemical Cycles • The deforestation that hurts red pandas will also lead to the water cycle being interrupted; groundwater will not be passed through roots and back into the air. The same is true for carbon; without trees to turn it into oxygen, it cannot be passed through the cycle. • Both the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles will be harmed- animals take in these two elements through food and release them into the soil. Without animals such as red pandas and those that eat them, phosphorus and nitrogen will not be passed through to the air.
Main Idea Hunting (mainly illegal) Can cause species to become endangered Can lead to species becoming extinct
Rare leopard subspecies that only lives in the remote and snowy northern forests of eastern Russian’s Primorye region (long fur helps them endure the hard cold). They used to live in Korea and northern China, but are now extinct in those areas. Amur leopard is also known as the Far East leopard, the Manchurian leopard or the Korean leopard, and they can live up to 10-15 years, and in captivity, up to 20. Similar to other leopards, the Amur leopard can run at speeds of up to 37 miles per hour, leap more than 19 feet horizontally and up to 10 feet vertically, and carries and hides unfinished kills so that they are not taken by other predators. They are critically endangered, and there are only about 30 of them left. They are skillful hunters that feed on deer, hares, and small rodents.
The Problem- Poaching • The Amur Leopard is largely poached for its beautiful, spotted, fur. • Since agriculture and villages surround the forests where the leopards live, hunting is more frequent and the leopards are more accessible. • People in the southeast of Primoryeare forced to rely on local forest products, because of the poor economy (which encourages poaching). • In general: People kill animals for their fur, oil, body parts, and many other things in order to fatten their wallet. These things then, are turned into fur coat, cosmetics, perfume, oil for lamps, and traditional medicines.
Poaching occurs mostly in Africa • Wildcats- People poach for their nice fur to sell, since Africa is mostly in poverty and people need the money. • Elephants- People kill an elephant for their ivory tusks and teeth, that are worth a lot of money. • Rhinos- People kill rhinos for their tusks and teeth, as well, which are also worth a lot of money. As for the Amur Leopard, most of the hunting is done in the Primorye region of southeastern Russia. As previously discussed, they used to be common in China and Korea too, but are now extinct in those parts, due to poaching an other reasons.
Outcomes? If not stopped or prevented.. • More animals will become close to extinct. Environmental Impacts? • The food chain will be disturbed because there will be more prey than predators. A definciency in predators disrupts the balance that is essential to matter cycles.
Ways you can help :) • Educate so that people are more aware of the situation • Fundraise so that larger organizations can work to save the Amur Leopard's habitat • Tell your very own local politicians to reject budject proposals that would cut funding for endangered species
Carbon Cycle • if the bones are left to rot, they will make fossil fuels • poaching CAN lead to the increase or decrease (amount) of carbon in the atmosphere • then plants take in the carbon and allow us to get oxygen and glucose after the process of photosynthesis • the amount of O2 and C6H12O6 depends IN PART on the amount of poaching that is done
Water Cycle • less animals alive COULD lead to less animals drinking the water in the ecosystem • less competition • living animals circulate the amount of nutrients that are being returned back to the ecosystem, and if many die, than there will be an imbalance
Ringed Seals • Recently, three subgroups of Ringed Seals-Arctic, Okhotsk, and Baltic, were placed on the endangered species list due to climate change • The Ringed Seals are the first species to be placed on the list since the polar bear due to climate change threats • Ringed Seals are one of the most common seals in the Arctic, and live in the Northern Hemisphere’s circumpolar oceans • Ringed Seals gather on the sea ice to breed, molt, and rest • On the sea ice, they build snow caves where they give birth, raise their pups, and go to for protection
The Problem • Due to climate change, the snow caves the Ringed Seals built are collapsing and the amount of sea ice is decreasing, leaving the pups vulnerable to cold temperatures and predators • The reason Ringed Seals are placed on the endangered species list is because of climate change • If the Earth’s climate continues to warm, all of the sea ice will melt, and the death of the seals will increase. Eventually, the ringed seal will become extinct and the animals that prey on the Ringed Seals (arctic foxes, birds, walruses, polar bears, and other animals) will also decrease, causing problems within the ecosystem
Climate Change • Climate change is any significant change in climate over a period of time, such as temperature, wind patterns, and precipitation • Climate change affects the entire world, but is more evident in places such as the ice caps and oceans • Humans are mostly responsible for climate change. By burning fossil fuels to produce energy, large amounts of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gasses and released into the atmosphere
Greenhouse Gases • These gases can be released in multiples of ways, such as by burning fossil fuels (coal, natural gas and oil), trees and wood products, remains of animals, and also as a product of some chemical reactions (ex, cement production) • When greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane are released, they trap energy in the atmosphere causing it to warm. Even though this process is necessary to support life, a buildup of these gases will cause changes in the Earth’s climate and will damage ecosystems and human health
How we can Stop Climate Change • Switch off the lights when not in use/ change light bulbs to compact fluorescents or LEDs • Recycle paper, plastic, etc. • Instead of driving, walk to your destination if it's within walking distance • Compost food and yard waste to reduce the amount of garbage sent to landfills • Spread the word and get others to help reduce climate change
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