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Kidney in Detail. Standard Grade Biology. Excretion by the Kidney. Urea -nitrogenous waste -made by liver -excess amino acids in blood -toxic Why must nitrogenous waste be excreted?. 1 – Filtration by the Kidney. Supplied with blood from renal artery

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kidney in detail

Kidney in Detail

Standard Grade Biology

excretion by the kidney
Excretion by the Kidney
  • Urea

-nitrogenous waste

-made by liver

-excess amino acids in blood


  • Why must nitrogenous waste be excreted?
1 filtration by the kidney
1 – Filtration by the Kidney
  • Supplied with blood from renal artery
  • Inside it splits into many fine capillaries
  • Each capillary supplies blood to hundreds of thousands of tiny filtration units called nephrons

Renal artery

Lets have a look at a nephron!!!

Renal vein



Blood from renal artery enters wide capillary

  • Glomerulus brings a large surface area of blood capillaries in close contact with Bowman’s capsule

2. Liquid filtered from blood under pressure (filtration)

  • Glomerular filtrate produced containing:





(Protein molecules and red blood

cells do not pass into tubule as

they are TOO BIG!!!!)

Blood travels through narrow capillary towards renal vein


Glomerular filtrate

  • Which feature of the glomerulus helps the process of filtration?
  • Which 4 components of unfiltered blood appear in the glomerular filtrate?
  • Why do blood cells and protein molecules not appear in the glomerular filtrate?
key words
Key Words!!

Nephron: structure in the kidney that acts as a microscopic filtration unit

Glomerulus: dense mass of very fine blood capillaries at the nephron that act as a filter

Bowman’s capusle: cup-shaped part of the nephron that holds a glomerulus and collects the products of filtration from it

Glomerular filtrate: liquid removed from the blood by filtration in the kidney

2 reabsorption by the kidney
2 – Reabsorption by the Kidney
  • Once the main components of glomerulur filtrate enter the bloodstream

-they are no longer in bloodstream

  • If nothing more happened in the nephron then all the useful stuff would be lost in the urine!
  • Therefore, glucose, water and some salts need to be reabsorbed!

More water reabsorbed

Glucose reabsorbed

Final urine containing:

-excess water

-unneeded salts

-waste urea

Variable amounts of water and salts reabsorbed and filtrate gradually turning into urine

  • Which three components of the glomerular filtrate are reabsorbed?
  • Why is it important for these to be reabsorbed?
  • Which substances are present in the final urine?
2 controlling water concentration
2 – Controlling Water Concentration
  • Blood

-important part of internal environment

-constantly changing water concentration

-e.g. exercising

drinking lots of water

  • The body uses negative feedback control to regulate water content of the blood

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