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Section 1-Polling Question • A • B • C • D Which quality of an army do you think is most important for success? A.Size of the army B.Strong leadership C.Advanced technology D.Enthusiasm for their cause
Chapter 6 The American Revolution (1776-1783) Section 1 The Early Years
Essential Question What challenges did the American revolutionaries face at the start of the war? • What challenges did the American revolutionaries face at the start of the war?
The American Revolution • After the Declaration of Independence, war was unavoidable • Both sides thought the war would be short • Patriots thought the British would give up after one or two losing battles • John Adams thought otherwise “We shall have a long… and bloody war to go through” • The British had great advantages
British Advantages • Strongest navy in the world • Experienced, well trained army • Wealth • Larger population • 8 million in Great Britain to 2.5 million in the United States
Colonists’ Disadvantages • Lacked a regular army and strong navy • American soldiers lacked experience • Short supply of weapons and ammunition • Most were militia • Fought for a short period of time before going home
More Patriot Struggles • Not all supported the struggle for independence • Some were neutral • Quakers would not participate in the war • Many remained loyal to Britain
The Loyalists • Loyal to Britain- also called Tories • 1 in 5 (20%) were Loyalists • Some people changed sides depending on which army was closer • Loyalist support was biggest in the Carolinas and Georgia • Weakest in New England
Why were people Loyalists? • Some were members of the Anglican church (headed by the king) • Others depended on the British for their jobs • Others feared disorder of forming a new government • Others didn’t see why the colonies wanted independence • One Loyalist complained: No other country “faced a rebellion arising from such trivial causes”
African Americans in the War • Some sided with the Loyalists • The Royal Governor of Virginia, Lord Dunmore, announced that enslaved people who fought on the British side would be freed • Many answered the call
Patriot Advantages • Fighting on own land and fought with determination to protect it • Britain was fighting in a faraway land • Britain relied on mercenaries (hired soldiers) called Hessians • Better leadership (George Washington)
Section 1 • A • B • C • D One of the Patriots’ greatest advantages was which of the following? A.A larger population B.Mercenaries fighting on their side C.A stronger navy D.George Washington as their military leader
Raising an army • The Americans transferred the power to the Continental Congress • The American Revolution was really like 13 separate wars • Each state pursued their own interests • Continental Congress had a hard time enlisting soldiers and raising money to fight the war • Each state was to recruit (enlist) soldiers
More of Raising an Army • At first men signed up for one year of service • Washington convinced some to enlist “for the whole term of the war” • Officers were also hard to recruit • The best officers were veterans of previous wars • Women also fought with the Patriot forces • Molly Pitcher and others
Battle on Long Island • Summer of 1776, Britain sent 32,000 troops across the Atlantic under General William Howe • Patriots had fewer than 20,000 troops • Continental Army suffered serious defeat • Nathan Hale proved himself a hero at Long Island • Hale spied on the British disguising himself as a Dutch schoolteacher • The British figured out his true identity and hanged him • Right before his hanging Hale said, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country”
More of the Battle of Long Island • Americans fought with bravery, but ran short of supplies • A British soldier wrote that many of the Patriot soldiers killed had not been wearing shoes, socks, or jackets • “They are also in great want of blankets,” predicting that the rebels would suffer during the winter • Washington retreated to Manhattan and then to Pennsylvania
A Low Point • Patriots faced near collapse during the winter of 1776-1777 • Size of the army dwindled as terms of service ended • Others ran away • Washington pleaded with the Continental Congress for new troops • Washington wanted to allow free blacks to fight, but many in the South felt uncomfortable giving them guns
African Americans Join the Fight • As more soldiers were needed, many states ignored the ban and enlisted African Americans • Rhode Island had an all-African regiment in 1778 • By the end of the war, all states except South Carolina had enlisted African Americans to fight • As many as 5,000 joined the Patriots including Lemuel Hayes and Peter Salem • African Americans joined because they believed in the Patriot cause or they needed money
Section 1 • A • B • C • D Historians estimate that how many African Americans joined the Patriots to fight? A.500 B.1,000 C.5,000 D.10,000
The British • Settled in New York for the winter • Left some troops in Princeton and Trenton, New Jersey • Washington saw a way to catch the British off guard • December 25th, 1776 Washington and 2,400 troops crossed the icy Delaware river to Trenton and surprised the Hessians • Washington then marched to Princeton and drove out the British • “Late successes have turned the scale and now they are all liberty-mad again”
A British Plan for Victory • The British planned on taking Albany, New York • Wanted to control the Hudson River • This would separate New England from the Middle Colonies • Involved a three-pronged attack • 1. General John Burgoyne would lead 8,000 troops south from Canada • 2. Lt. Colonel Barry St. Leger would move east from Lake Ontario • 3. General Howe would move north from New York City • The three groups would meet at Albany and destroy the Patriot troops
The British Capture Philadelphia • Howe won battles near and in Philadelphia in September 1777 • The Continental Congress was forced to flee • Washington then attacked the British at Germantown, but had to withdraw • Howe decided to spend the winter in Philadelphia instead of going to Albany • Howe wanted to stay close to Washington’s troops
Patriots slow the British • St. Leger’s forces approached Fort Stanwix, New York • Benedict Arnold forced the British to retreat • General Burgoyne’s troops were not making much progress • Gentleman Johnny Burgoyne traveled with 30 wagons of luxury goods • Americans also cut down trees to block their path • Burgoyne needed supplies so he sent 800 troops to Bennington, Vermont • The Green Mountain Boys attacked and defeated them • Burgoyne retreated to Saratoga, New York in October
The Battle of Saratoga • The British forces Burgoyne expected did not arrive • St. Leger was defeated and Howe was still in Philadelphia • American troops under General Horatio Gates blocked Burgoyne’s path to the south • Burgoyne was surrounded by a large army, but decided to attack • The American’s held together and forced Burgoyne to surrender • Howe then resigned as commander of British troops in America and was replaced by General Henry Clinton • Saratoga was a turning point in the war, Patriot victory now seemed possible
Section 1 • A • B • C • D At which battle was the British plan to separate the colonies foiled? A.The Battle of Saratoga B.The Battle of Trenton C.The Battle of Philadelphia D.The Battle of Burgoyne
Essential Question • What challenges did the American revolutionaries face at the start of the war? • Americans had fewer people and less wealth • They lacked a regular army and a strong navy • They lacked military experience, weapons, and ammunition • Not all Americans supported the cause • Some Americans fought for the British • What challenges did the American revolutionaries face at the start of the war?
Enslaved African Americans who fought on the British side were given • land. • freedom. • money. • guns.
Who disguised herself as a man so she could fight with the army? • Deborah Sampson • Margaret Corbin • Molly Pitcher • Betsy Ross
Few patriots believed ____________ when he stated, “We shall have a long and bloody war to go through.” • Alexander Hamilton • George Washington • John Adams • Thomas Paine
The first state to have an all-African American regiment was • South Carolina. • New York. • Georgia. • Rhode Island.
On October 17, 1777, General John Burgoyne surrendered to the Americans at • Philadelphia. • Trenton. • Saratoga. • Concord.