One Minute Manager Period 4 Your objective is to research your assigned term and create a one minute lesson about the term with as many facts, names, definitions, examples or other pertinent information for the study of biopsychology. You will need to create a slide with the following items on it: 1. The term 2. Several bulleted points about the term 3. A visual to graphically represent the term Be prepared to elaborate on the information as you present to the class. Biological Bases of Behavior
1. Biological Psychology • Focuses on physical and chemical changes that either • cause certain behaviors/mental processes • occur in response to behaviors • Study of cells and organs • Examines relationship between the brain and behavior Roger Sperry, neuropsychologist
coordinates voluntary and involuntary actions and transmits signals between different parts of the body via the spinal cord consists of 2 main parts: the central nervous system (containing the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (consists mainly of nerves) “a complex combination of cells whose primary function is to allow an organism to gain information about what is going on inside and outside the body and to respond appropriately.” 2. Nervous System
3. Neurons Neurons- “nerve cells”; cells designed to rapidly respond to signals and send their own. Exchange info through axons and dendrites and by synapses Held together and kept alive by glial cells
4. Glial Cells 3 types: Astrocytes Oligodendrocytes and Microglia. the “supporting cell” What they do? • hold neurons in place • supply neurons with nutrients and oxygen • insulate neurons • “clean up” dead neurons
5. Axon - Ali An Axon is a neuron fiber that carries signals away from the cell body out to where communication occurs w/ other neurons. • Most neurons have only one axon • Most carry signals in the form of Action Potentials • The larger the axon, the faster it transmits information • Some axons are covered with a fatty substance called myelin that acts as an insulator. Which transmit information much faster than other neurons.
6. Dendrite • What is a dendrite? • A neuron fiber that receives signals from the axons of other neurons and carries those signals to the cell body • Function? • To detect and carry signals to cells • Type of signal carried? • Postsynaptic potential (electrochemical signal moving towards cell body)
7. Synapses Neurons have specialized projections called dendrites and axons which work in cahoots to bring and take information to and from the cell body. Information from one neuron flows to another across a SYNAPSE -- which can be said to being similar to a neuro-shipping channel - and the cargo is information. The SYNAPSE consists of a “presynaptic” ending which contains neurotransmitters and a “postsynaptic” ending which houses receptor sites -- thus making up the “channel.”
8. Action Potential • A sudden wave of electrochemical changes in the axon • Beginning in the axon go in both directions • down and backwards • Speed is constant for a particular cell • In different cells, speed can be 0.2-120 meters per second
9. Myelin A dielectric material that forms a layer around only the axon of a neuron. Made up by different cell types & varies in chemical composition & configuration It is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system The production of the myelin begins in the 14th week of Fetal Development Myelin is about 40% water, the dry mass is about 70-85% lipids and about 15-30% proteins.
10. Refractory Period • The period of time where the response to a second stimulus is significantly slowed because a first stimulus is still being processed • It requires divided attention such as reading while watching tv, texting while talking to someone, or driving and talking on the phone • Refractory periods can be affected by personality, age, and the level of alcohol or caffeine intake
12. Neurotransmitters A neurotransmitter is a chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber upon the arrival of a nerve impulse The neurotransmitter diffuses across the synapse or junction to another nerve fiber, a muscle fiber or another structure Neurotransmitters are stored in small, bubble like compartments called vesicles Each vesicle tends to hold a specific type of neurotransmitter (dopamine, serotonin) Problems with neurotransmitters can be the cause of many mental diseases and disorders
14. Postsynaptic Potentials • Definition: a temporary change in polarization of a neuron membrane, can make the cell either more or less likely to fire • Ex: positively charged molecules of chemicals like sodium or calcium flow into the neuron, making it slightly less polarized • Caused by the action of neurotransmitters released by the presynaptic cell
15. Excitatory And Inhibitory Excitatory • Neurotransmitters that stimulates the brain • Activation of the receptor causes depolarization of the membrane and promotes action potential generation • Cause an opening opening of ligand gated sodium ion channels Inhibitory • Activation of the receptor causes hyperpolarization and depresses action potential generation. • Are responsible for regulating the activation of excitatory neurons • Primarily project within small, localized regions of cortex
17. Sensory System • Part of the Nervous System • Responsible for processing sensory information • Sensory systems code for four aspects of a stimulus: type, intensity, location, and duration • A stimulus modality is a type of physical phenomenon that can be sensed
18.Motor Systems ability to perform complex muscle and nerve acts that produce movement; fine motor skills like writing, tying shoes, walking and kicking
19. Peripheral Nervous System • part of nervous system not encased in bone (not brain or spinal cord) • 2 divisions: • somatic: transfers info. between senses, central nervous system, and muscles • autonomic: messages between central nervous system and heart, lungs, organs, glands, etc. • sympathetic system: fight-or-flight response • parasympathetic system: energy conservation
20. Autonomic Nervous System • The part of the nervous system responsible for control of the bodily functions not consciously directed. These control systems are mainly controlled by your atlas and axis. -i.e. breathing, heartbeat or glandular activity • TWO SUBDIVISIONS: • Sympathetic Nervous System:The sympathetic nervous system activates the fight or flight response. Like other parts of the nervous system, the sympathetic nervous system operates through a series of interconnected neurons. • Parasympathetic Nervous System: rest and digest system, the parasympathetic system conserves energy as it slows the heart rate, increases intestinal and gland activity, and relaxes sphincter muscles in the gastrointestinal tract.
21. Nuclei -Sophia Nuclei- collectionofnervecellbodiesin thecentral nervous system • The central nervous system is laid out like carefully planned streets of new suburb with distinct neighborhoods, winding streets and multi-laned highways • The “neighborhoods” are collections of neuronal cell bodies (nuclei) the “highways” are made up of axons that travel together in bundles called fiber tracts • these fiber tracts travel from one nucleus to another nuclei • this tells us how the brain works by being able to trace the connections among nuclei
23. Spinal Cord and Reflexes Spinal Cord: relays signals from peripheral senses to brain, then the body; initiates reflexes - feedback system (info about consequences) Reflexes: automatic, finely coordinated movements that react to external stimuli involuntarily -few slow synaptic links make them fast
24. Cerebral Hemisphere • Either of the 2 symmetrical halves of the cerebrum, divided by the longitudinal cerebral fissure. The sides are connected by the the corpus callosum. • Its the part of the brain that controls reading, writing, and learning. • The right hemisphere controls the muscles on the left side of the body and the left hemisphere controls the muscles on the right side of the body. • Left Hemisphere = Language, writing, math, & logic • Right Hemisphere = Spatial abilities, Face recognition, dreams, awareness, visual imagery, & arts Kylie Valencia
25. Cerebral Cortex Holly Guzman • The outer layer of the cerebrum • Composed of folded gray matter, • Plays an important role in consciousness responsible for “higher order” functions: perceiving, producing, & understanding language • Has right & left hemispheres, separated into 4 lobes parietal, occipital, temporal, & frontal • Most of the information processing happens here
26. Sensory Cortex - Jackie • Region of the cerebral cortex concerned with receiving and interpreting sensory information from various parts of the body. • Umbrella term that encompasses all the senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell.
27. Motor Cortex • A region of the cerebral cortex • Involved in the planning, control and execution of voluntary movements • comprises three different areas of the frontal lobe • premotor cortex, primary motor cortex,and the supplementary motor area
Association Cortex • the cerebral cortex outside the primary areas • essential for mental functions that are more complex than detecting basic dimensions of sensory stimulation • like recognizing objects, not just colors, shapes and signs • not motor or sensory but are thought to be involved in higher thinking
29. Corpus Callosum - Corpus Callosum a wide, flat bundle of neural fibers beneath the cortex. -It connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres and facilitates interhemispheric communication. -The Interpreter -It is the largest white matter structure in the brain - Two parts of the corpus callosum • The posterior portion is called the splenium • The anterior is called the genuor"knee”
30. Lateralization • Which side of the brain do you use more? • The logical left or the creative right? • On the left side you have more mathematical thinkers while on the right you have music players and artists • Text Book Definition: Referring to the tendency for one cerebral hemisphere to excel at a particular function or skill compared with the other hemisphere
31. Synaptic Plasticity • The ability of neurons to strengthen or weaken, depending on use • The brain is constantly changing these connections and their strength • Could be a few seconds, minutes, hours, days, or years • It’s the learning process, dude
Neurotransmitter system • A chemical substance, such as acetylcholine or dopamine, that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse. • Two kinds of Neurotransmitters • Inhibitory: balances mood • Excitatory: stimulate the brain
33. Endocrine System • Regulates functions ranging from stress responses to physical growth. • Cells that form organs are called glands and communicate with one another by secreting chemicals called hormones.
35. Flight or Fight Syndrome • The body’s natural response system • Response to threats and danger • To either stay & fight or run away Common Occurrences: • Heart rate increases • Narrowed or tunnel vision • Muscular tension • Sweating or perspiration • Increased hearing ability
36. Negative Feedback Systems - Harnoor • Negative Feedback occurs when the result of a process influences the operation of the process itself in such a way as to reduce changes • Negative Feedback self-regulates the system, it can produce stability and reduce the effect of fluctuations • Negative Feedback loops can be stable, accurate and responsive • Example - Human body temperature - The hypothalamus of a human responds to temperature fluctuations and responds accordingly. If the temperature drops, the body shivers to bring up the temperature and if it is too warm, the body will sweat to cool down due to evaporation.
37. Phineas Gage Who? • A railroad worker injured in an accidental explosion • destroyed most of his frontal lobe Aftermath • a year of recovery later he was blind in only one eye but physically in good health • before the accident was said to be hard-working and pleasant • after the accident his friends reported him to be an aggressive drunk who couldn’t hold a job Influence on Psychology • his case influenced more discoveries in neuroscience • His story served as the first sources of evidence that the frontal lobe was connected to personalities
38. Immune System - Brad What is the immune system? • system of biological structures/processes that protect against disease How does it protect against disease? • detects harmful substances and attacks them Who has one? • All humans and animals - even bacteria have one (enzymes protect) What happens if it’s damaged? • Disorders of the immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer
36. Autoimmune Disorder • Where the immune system can’t tell the difference between healthy body tissues and antigens and begins to attack them • More than 80 different types of autoimmune disorders • May result in: • The destruction on one or more types of body tissues • Abnormal growth of an organ • Changes in organ functions • Symptoms: • Fatigue • Fever • General ill-feeling(malaise)
40. Chromosomal Abnormalities •Chromosomal abnormalities, alterations and aberrations are at the root of many inherited diseases and traits. •Chromosomal abnormalities often give rise to birth defects and hereditary conditions that may develop during an individual's lifetime. •Examining the karyotype of chromosomes (karyotyping) in a sample of cells can allow detection of a chromosomal abnormality and counseling can then be offered to parents or families whose offspring are at risk of growing up with a genetic disorder. •Ex: Down Syndrome (trisomy 21) , Edward’s Syndrome (trisomy 18)