Genetics
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Genetics. The Blueprint Idea Genes provide the blueprint for life Without the blueprint, no life is possible. What are genes and what is their function?. Genes are segments of DNA (contains all biologically inherited information) Genes code for polypeptides (proteins)!

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Genetics
Genetics

  • The Blueprint Idea

    • Genes provide the blueprint for life

    • Without the blueprint, no life is possible


What are genes and what is their function
What are genes and what is their function?

  • Genes are segments of DNA (contains all biologically inherited information)

  • Genes code for polypeptides (proteins)!

  • Genes do not code for behavior!

  • Chromosomes contain genes


Basics
Basics

  • Conception: ovum and sperm fuse to create zygote

  • Ovum: 23 chromosomes (mom’s contribution)

  • Sperm: 23 chromosomes (dad’s contribution)


Zygote
Zygote

  • 46 chromosomes (23 pairs: 23 from mom and 23 from dad)

  • 22 pairs are called autosomes

  • 23rd pair contain the sex chromosomes





Mitosis
Mitosis

  • Cell division resulting in new diploid cells (46 chromosomes)

  • Chromosomes replicate, then split into two diploid cells


Mitosis

Body Cell

46

Chromosomes

Daughter Cell

46

Chromosomes

Daughter Cell

46

Chromosomes


Meiosis
Meiosis

  • Cell division resulting in haploid (23 chromosomes) cells

  • Creation of gametes (sex cells: ovum and sperm)


Meiosis1
Meiosis

Germ Cell

46

Chromosomes

Gamete

23

Chromosomes

Gamete

23

Chromosomes


Expression of genes
Expression of Genes

  • Genotype: genetic makeup

  • Phenotype: physical appearance


Dominant vs recessive genes
Dominant vs. Recessive Genes

  • Dominant: a relatively powerful gene that is expressed phenotypically and masks the effect of a less powerful, recessive gene.

  • Recessive: a less powerful gene that is not expressed phenotypically when paired with a dominant gene.


Polygenic inheritance
Polygenic Inheritance

  • Affected by many genes rather than by a single pair.