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Thermal Energy. Milbank High School. Sec. 12.1 Temperature and Thermal Energy. Objectives Describe the nature of thermal energy Define temperature and distinguish it from thermal energy Use the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales and convert one to the other

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thermal energy

Thermal Energy

Milbank High School

sec 12 1 temperature and thermal energy
Sec. 12.1Temperature and Thermal Energy
  • Objectives
    • Describe the nature of thermal energy
    • Define temperature and distinguish it from thermal energy
    • Use the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales and convert one to the other
    • Define specific heat and calculate heat transfer
thermodynamics
Thermodynamics
  • “The study of heat”
  • Kinetic-molecular theory
  • Thermal Energy
    • Overall energy of motion of the particles that make up an object
  • Temperature
equilibrium thermometry
Equilibrium/Thermometry
  • Conduction
  • Thermal Equilibrium
  • Thermometer
celsius and kelvin
Celsius and Kelvin
  • Celsius
    • Water freezes at 0°C
    • Boils at 100°C
  • Kelvin
    • Water freezes at 273 K
  • Absolute Zero
    • -273°C
    • 0 K
heat and thermal energy
Heat and Thermal Energy
  • Heat
    • The energy that flows between two objects as a result of a difference in temperature (Q)
    • Measured in Joules (energy)
  • Convection
  • Radiation
  • Specific Heat

Q = mCΔT

calorimetry
Calorimetry
  • A device used to measure changes in thermal energy
  • Insulated
  • Conservation of Energy in a closed system
  • Example Problem
    • Heat Transfer in a Calorimeter
review concepts
Review Concepts…
  • Temperature is proportional to the average ________________of its particles.
  • Thermal energy is the measure of ______________.
  • At absolute zero, ________________.
  • Can you take the temperature inside of a vacuum?
  • Which liquid would an ice cube cool faster, water or methanol?
  • Why do easily vaporized liquids, such as acetone and methanol, feel cool to the skin?
sec 12 2 change of state and laws of thermodynamics
Sec. 12.2Change of State and Laws of Thermodynamics
  • Objectives
    • Define heats of fusion and vaporization
    • State the first and second laws of thermodynamics
    • Define heat engine, refrigerator, and heat pump
    • Define entropy
change of state
Change of State
  • Melting point
  • Boiling point
  • Heat of fusion

Q = mHf

  • Heat of vaporization

Q = mHv

  • Example Problem
    • Melting a Solid and Warming the Resulting Liquid
the first law of thermodynamics
The First Law of Thermodynamics
  • Thermodynamics
  • The total increase in the thermal energy of a system is the sum of the work done on it and the heat added to it
  • Heat Engine
refrigeration
Refrigeration

Refrigeration-- Cooling by evaporation.

Compress & cool to liquefy a gas (outside the fridge) then boil it in a vacuum (inside the fridge) to absorb heat.

the second law of thermodynamics
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • Entropy
  • Natural processes go in a direction that maintains or increases the total entropy on the universe
    • Things become more disordered
review concepts15
Review Concepts…
  • Can you add thermal energy to an object without increasing its temperature?
  • When wax freezes, is energy absorbed or released by the wax?
  • You are boiling pasta. Will it cook faster if the water is boiling vigorously or if it is boiling gently?
review
Review
  • The second law of thermodynamics states that natural processes go in a direction that maintains or increases total __________.
  • First law of thermodynamics says that _________ + _________=___________
  • Heat of fusion
  • Heat of vaporization
  • The three types of thermal energy transfer are _________, _________, and _________.
review17
Review
  • Entropy!
    • How does it relate to creation/evolution?
    • The entropy of the universe always ___________ (increases or decreases).
  • An internal combustion engine converts _________energy to ________ energy.
  • _________ ________ is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of a substance by one kelvin.
review18
Review
  • What does the kinetic-molecular theory state?
  • _______________is the study of heat.
  • When using a thermometer, energy is transferred via a process called ____________.