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FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48)

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  1. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit Everyone worn out  Treaties of Westphalia & Munster (1648) Spain is bankrupt & exhausted  No longer a major power Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79) Ger. stays divided & weak until unif. in 1871 (FC.121) Aust’s power in Ger. broken  Expands to East (FC.90) Dutch win indep. Econ dominance in 1600s (FC.93) Stage set for dominance by Louis XIV’s France (FC.95)

  2. Adding to anxiety about coming disaster was the appearance of Halley’s Comet in 1618

  3. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) a Two main sources of tension in early 1600s?


  4. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87)

  5. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  6. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  7. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  8. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  9. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  10. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  11. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  12. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  13. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  14. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  15. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  16. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  17. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  18. A growing fear of war triggered an arms race, as each ruler seemed armed to the teeth to protect himself from his neighbors. Demonstrations of military power, such as the one at Nuremburg pictured below, were meant to deter aggression. Unfortunately they only alarmed their neighbors and fed a vicious cycle that saw military stockpiles and tensions rising together.

  19. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  20. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France $ supply in Eur. & why? Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  21. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  22. Along with a decreased supply of new silver came debasement of coinage. Such coins were commonly referred to as “white foxes” since they were little more than copper coins hidden by a thin wash of silver.

  23. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Climate & its effect? Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  24. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  25. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  26. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Where did 30 Yrs War start? Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  27. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  28. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  29. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  30. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  31. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  32. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  33. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  34. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  35. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  36. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) War spreads More states involved & committing more resources How does the Bohemian revolt turn out? Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  37. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Next phase & its result? Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  38. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Next phase & its result? France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  39. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) Next phase & its result? Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  40. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  41. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets Everyone worn out  Treaties of Westphalia & Munster (1648) a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  42. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Growing war fears Rising milit. budgets Everyone worn out  Treaties of Westphalia & Munster (1648) a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79)

  43. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Growing war fears Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Everyone worn out  Treaties of Westphalia & Munster (1648) Spain is bankrupt & exhausted  No longer a major power Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) Rising milit. budgets a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79) Ger. stays divided & weak until unif. in 1871 (FC.121) Austria? Dutch win indep. Econ dominance in 1600s (FC.93) Stage set for dominance by Louis XIV’s France (FC.95)

  44. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Growing war fears Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Everyone worn out  Treaties of Westphalia & Munster (1648) Spain is bankrupt & exhausted  No longer a major power Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) Rising milit. budgets a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79) Aust’s power in Ger. broken  Expands to East (FC.90) Germany? Dutch win indep. Econ dominance in 1600s (FC.93) Stage set for dominance by Louis XIV’s France (FC.95)

  45. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Growing war fears Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Everyone worn out  Treaties of Westphalia & Munster (1648) Spain is bankrupt & exhausted  No longer a major power Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) Rising milit. budgets a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79) Ger. stays divided & weak until unif. in 1871 (FC.121) Aust’s power in Ger. broken  Expands to East (FC.90) Stage set for dominance by Louis XIV’s France (FC.95) Dutch?

  46. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Growing war fears Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Everyone worn out  Treaties of Westphalia & Munster (1648) Spain? Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) Rising milit. budgets a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79) Ger. stays divided & weak until unif. in 1871 (FC.121) Aust’s power in Ger. broken  Expands to East (FC.90) Dutch win indep. Econ dominance in 1600s (FC.93) Stage set for dominance by Louis XIV’s France (FC.95)

  47. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Growing war fears Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Everyone worn out  Treaties of Westphalia & Munster (1648) Spain is bankrupt & exhausted  No longer a major power Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) Rising milit. budgets a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79) Ger. stays divided & weak until unif. in 1871 (FC.121) Aust’s power in Ger. broken  Expands to East (FC.90) Dutch win indep. Econ dominance in 1600s (FC.93) France?

  48. FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Lower silver prod. from Amer’s $ shortages in Eur War spreads More states involved & committing more resources Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could Eur. wide conflict Exhausting stalemate Neither side can win or afford to quit France joins vs. Hapsburgs War of attrition (1635-48) Catholics: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy Protestants: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Growing war fears Colder & wetter climate in 1600s Famine & disease Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Everyone worn out  Treaties of Westphalia & Munster (1648) Spain is bankrupt & exhausted  No longer a major power Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) Rising milit. budgets a Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79) Ger. stays divided & weak until unif. in 1871 (FC.121) Aust’s power in Ger. broken  Expands to East (FC.90) Dutch win indep. Econ dominance in 1600s (FC.93) Stage set for dominance by Louis XIV’s France (FC.95)