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Basic Kinematics. Course Content. Introduction to the Course Biomechanical Concepts Related to Human Movement Anatomical Concepts Related to Human Movement Applications in Human Movement. Course Content. Introduction to the Course Biomechanical Concepts Related to Human Movement

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Course content l.jpg
Course Content

  • Introduction to the Course

  • Biomechanical Concepts Related to Human Movement

  • Anatomical Concepts Related to Human Movement

  • Applications in Human Movement


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Course Content

  • Introduction to the Course

  • Biomechanical Concepts Related to Human Movement

  • Anatomical Concepts Related to Human Movement

  • Applications in Human Movement


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Biomechanical Concepts

  • Basic Kinematic Concepts

  • Vector Algebra

  • Basic Kinetic Concepts


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Biomechanical Concepts

  • Basic Kinematic Concepts

  • Vector Algebra

  • Basic Kinetic Concepts


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Basic Kinematic Concepts

  • Variables for Describing Motion

  • Reference Systems for Describing Motion of the Human Body and Its Segments

  • Guidelines for Describing Motion of the Human Body and Its Segments



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What is kinematics?

  • Spatial and temporal characteristics

  • Qualitative or quantitative

  • Linear & angular motion


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Why use kinematics?

  • Practical: Provides a standard for us in performing, teaching, or evaluating a skill

  • Research: Once we describe, we can ask why?

Problem with kinematics?

  • Practical: Proper kinematics does not always mean proper force application


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Basic Kinematic Concepts

  • Variables for Describing Motion

  • Reference Systems for Describing Motion of the Human Body & Its Segments

  • Guidelines for Describing Motion of the Human Body & Its Segments


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Kinematic Variables

  • Time

  • Position

  • Displacement & distance

  • Velocity & speed

  • Acceleration


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WHEN?

HOW OFTEN?

IN WHAT ORDER?

HOW LONG?

Most basic analysis

Examples:

Cadence

Stride time

Temporal patterning

Time – Temporal Analysis



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Stance

Swing

Temporal Patterning



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Position

  • position - location in space relative to some reference point

  • Linear position (s)

    • x,y,z coordinates

  • Angular position ()

  • Units

WHERE?


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Displacement (s, )

Final change in position

Vector quantity

Distance (p, )

Sum of all changes in position

Scalar quantity

Displacement & Distance

HOW FAR?

  • Units (m, °)


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Velocity (v, )

Vector quantity

position  time

Units (m.s-1, °.s-1)

Acceleration (a, )

Vector quantity

velocity  time

Units (m.s-2, °.s-2)

Insight into forces/torques

Velocity & Acceleration

HOW QUICKLY IS VELOCITY CHANGING?

HOW FAST?


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Basic Kinematic Concepts

  • Types of Motion

  • Variables for Describing Motion

  • Reference Systems for Describing Motion of the Human Body & Its Segments

  • Guidelines for Describing Motion of the Human Body & Its Segments


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Reference Systems: Linear

+y

vertical

horizontal

-x

+x

Must define origin of reference system to quantify kinematics.

horizontal

+z

-y


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90°

180°

270°

Absolute Reference Systems: Angular

/2 rad

¼ rev

CCW +

  • rad

    ½ rev

2 rad

1 rev

3/2 rad

¾ rev



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Relative Reference Systems

  • All Joints @ 0except

  • Ankle @ 90

  • Forearm varies

Fundamental

Standing

Position

Anatomical

Standing

Position


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Reference Systems for Measuring Joint Position & Displacement

90

140

140

0


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0 Displacement

40

90

0

90


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Basic Kinematic Concepts Displacement

  • Types of Motion

  • Variables for Describing Motion

  • Reference Systems for Describing Motion of the Human Body & Its Segments

  • Guidelines for Describing Motion of the Human Body & Its Segments






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5. When observing motion, look planes around oblique axes.at the plane, down the axis.


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Summary planes around oblique axes.

  • Identify the system of interest

  • Identify the type(s) of motion of interest

  • Identify the reference system for the motion

  • Describe precisely the temporal & spatial characteristics of that motion using appropriate terminology for the situation

    • Time

    • Position

    • Displacement (ROM)

    • Velocity

    • Acceleration


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For the next lecture day: planes around oblique axes.

  • Lecture Topic #2

    • Subtopic C – Vector Algebra


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