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All Hazards Planning. Edward P. Richards Director, Program in Law, Science, and Public Health Harvey A. Peltier Professor of Law LSU Law Center Topics. What is an All Hazards plan? What are the elements of an All Hazards plan?

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All Hazards Planning

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all hazards planning

All Hazards Planning

Edward P. Richards

Director, Program in Law, Science, and Public Health

Harvey A. Peltier Professor of Law

LSU Law Center

  • What is an All Hazards plan?
  • What are the elements of an All Hazards plan?
  • Why is All Hazards planning necessary?
  • Examples
    • Preparing for bird flu
    • Evacuation of New Orleans for Katrina
episode based plans plans to plan
Episode-based PlansPlans to Plan
  • Episode-based plans
    • Bird flu plans
    • Anthrax plans
    • Bomb plans
  • Plans to plan
    • What you need to think about, not what you need to do
    • No operational detail
what is an all hazards plan
What is an All Hazards Plan?
  • A unified plan that, as much as possible, uses common strategies for emergency response
  • Emergency response is built on day-to-day procedures and resources
  • All Hazards plans are operational plans
    • They tell you what to do, not just what to plan
  • The public is fully informed and an integral part of the emergency response
elements of an all hazards plan
Elements of an All Hazards Plan
  • Analysis of common factors in the different types of emergencies
  • Relation of these common factors to routine procedures
  • Modification of existing procedures to incorporate elements that will be needed in emergencies
  • Public information and education


Transforming a Bird Flu Plan into an All Hazards Plan

episode planning bird flu
Episode Planning: Bird Flu
  • Plans for emergency quarantine
  • Plans for ethical guidelines on vaccine allocation
  • Plans for stockpiles of PPE
  • Plans to work with public health, including an MOU that says we will play nicely
  • Plans for how to plan to handle the SNS
  • Maybe some training on how to put on a mask
all hazard planning bird flu
All Hazard Planning: Bird Flu
  • What are core problems?
    • Protecting staff from infection
    • Assuring adequate staff for operations
  • What are related issues?
    • Yearly flu pandemic
    • Exposure to tuberculosis and other communicable diseases in the workplace
all hazards recommendations vaccinations
All Hazards Recommendations:Vaccinations
  • Assure vaccination status of employees
    • Mumps, measles, etc, which can disable a force
    • Yearly flu
  • Benefits
    • Reduction in lost time from work
    • Readiness if there is an outbreak
    • Resolves individual and union opposition to vaccination before there is an emergency
all hazards recommendations working sick
All Hazards Recommendations:Working Sick
  • US culture and especially law enforcement encourages people to work sick
    • Limits on sick days
    • Rules that you cannot be on special teams
    • Increases the spread of diseases such as the flu in the workplace
  • Set up criteria for exclusion of contagious workers
  • Change work rules to eliminate punishment for being excluded so employees will not hide illness
all hazards recommendations personal protection
All Hazards Recommendations:Personal Protection
  • Key personal protection
    • hand washing
    • behavior limitations - handshaking, etc.
    • goggles, masks
  • Recommendations
    • Train and equip all officers
    • Use these for regular flu and other possible disease exposures
    • Make behavioral modifications so these become routine
all hazards recommendations public information
All Hazards Recommendations:Public Information
  • There maybe a need to limit travel or impose home quarantine
  • The public should be educated about all aspects of these possible limitations
    • What is their role?
    • Why is it important?
    • How will essential services be provided?
    • How will you assure families will not be separated?
  • This will identify problematic areas and reduce confusion in an emergency
all hazards planning generalization
All Hazards Planning:Generalization
  • Staffing in emergencies
    • Any emergency that threatens the general public will threaten the employees families
    • You have to provide for the families if you want staff to show up
  • Develop a general plan for family issues
evaluation episode based planning
Evaluation: Episode Based Planning
  • Episode based plans are invisible until there is an emergency
    • These are very low probability events
    • The only testing is by artificial exercises
  • Quality control theory (Demings, etc.)
    • You can only achieve quality through iterative improvement based on data analysis and feedback
    • This is impossible with an episode based plan
evaluation all hazards planning
Evaluation: All Hazards Planning
  • All Hazards planning does fit the criteria for proper quality control
    • Elements of the plan are in operation at all times
    • This provides intermediate data, i.e., things to measure short of a disaster happening
  • Improves routine operations
    • There is almost no data on communicable diseases in the law enforcement workplace
assumptions behind all hazards planning
Assumptions Behind All Hazards Planning
  • Equipment and materiel that is not routinely exercised will not be maintained and will not function when needed
  • Emergencies are the worst time to change procedures
  • Public cooperation depends on pre-event education and buy-in
political reality
Political Reality
  • The public (legislatures) have a short attention span and will not support emergency response once they move on to the next crisis de jure
  • Reality Check:
    • 23 states, including most of the most populous, have done away with mandatory childhood vaccinations
    • We are in the middle of a mumps epidemic in the Midwest - are your employees vaccinated?
lessons from katrina

Lessons from Katrina

The Blind Men and the Elephant

transportation issues surface causes
Transportation IssuesSurface Causes
  • Evacuation not triggered until too late
  • No provision for moving folks without transportation
  • When transport was available - school busses - there was no provision for drivers
  • No provisions for jails and hospitals
  • No provision for secondary evacuation form the Superdome and other facilities
transportation issues surface solutions
Transportation Issues:Surface Solutions
  • Better plans
  • More modes of transportation
  • Earlier evacuations
  • "Manditory" evacuations
  • All sound, but all miss the point
transportation issues root causes
Transportation Issues:Root Causes
  • New Orleans has flooded frequently
  • Most of the land that flooded is reclaimed bay and swamp that is up to 20 feet below sea level, not historic New Orleans
  • People lived next to levees with water 5 feet over street level every day
  • Flood insurance was not required because it was assumed that the levees could not break
the implications of a real evacuation
The Implications of a Real Evacuation
  • The only reason to really evacuate is if the levees fail, which was ruled out
    • The Superdome and shelters of last resort
    • Delaying the call for evacuation
  • Why?
    • 40 years of false alarms
    • Admitting the levees could fail would destroy the real estate values in New Orleans
    • Routine serious evacuations destroy business
the real lessons from katrina
The Real Lessons from Katrina
  • Plans based on politically unacceptable actions will not be carried out
  • Long term prevention loses out to short term economic and political considerations
    • Do not build in dangerous areas
    • Require realistic risk analysis for insurance
    • Do not downplay risks that cannot be managed
how would all hazards planning have changed the outcome
How Would All Hazards Planning Have Changed the Outcome?
  • Focus would have been on the risks of living below sea level, not just on the evacuation
  • Planning would have explicitly included levee failure
    • Flood insurance
    • Business interruption insurance
    • Meeting appropriate life-safety codes for hospitals
    • Personal evacuation planning
  • Addressing these would have changed the political dynamic, allowing a proper evacuation