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Research Opportunities. Air Quality and Human Health 2004 Olympic Games Athens, Greece Karsten Baumann Georgia Institute of Technology School of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences. Asthma Epidemic.

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Research Opportunities

Air Quality and Human Health2004 Olympic GamesAthens, GreeceKarsten BaumannGeorgia Institute of TechnologySchool of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences

asthma epidemic
Asthma Epidemic

The percentage of the US population with the disease has nearly doubled since 1980. In 2000, ~11 million people suffered an asthma attack.

Sources: Morbidity & Mortality: 2002 Chart Book on Cardiovascular, Lung, and Blood Diseases; National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2002.

Latest Findings on National Air Quality: 2001 Status and Trends; EPA 454/K-02-001; US EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS); September 2002.

Emergency room visits for treatment of asthma increase by 30-40 % when ambient ozone levels are elevated. The US EPA estimates that more than 110 million people reside in counties where the air is consistently unhealthy due to periodic ozone pollution.

urban air pollution
Urban Air Pollution

Athens 2004 Air Quality Study, 1997

Moussiopoulos & Papagrigoriou

Aristotle University Thessaloniki & Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering (LHTEE), Thessaloniki, Greece

  • Renewal of the Athenian vehicle fleet
  • Exclusion of most polluting passenger cars
  • Reducing [NOx] from heavy-duty vehicles
  • Minor effects from pedestrian zones


potential us contributions
Potential US Contributions
  • Comprehensive characterization of air quality
    • Baseline measurements 3 weeks before and 3 weeks after Olympics
    • Indoor and outdoor measurements / modeling
    • All measurements before, during, and after the games
    • Local population and athlete exposure to pollution
  • Relate pollutant levels to human health effects
  • Model / monitor effects of emissions reductions
  • Long-term monitoring to the benefit of Athens

the us research team

Georgia Institute of Technology

Centers for Disease Control

Emory University Asthma Clinic

Research Institute (GTRI)

Air Resources Engineering Center (AREC)

  • Atmospheric chemistry
  • Air quality monitoring
  • Aerosol characterization
  • Forecasting
  • Air quality modeling
  • Emissions from motor vehicles
  • Emissions modeling
  • NEXLASER Ozone and aerosol lidar
  • Indoor air quality monitors
The US Research Team

arec team
  • Baumann, EAS, director, lab & field operations
  • Bergin, EAS/CEE prof, aerosol optical properties
  • Chang, EAS, Sr RS, urban AQ modeling
  • Nenes, EAS prof, heterogeneous modeling
  • Odman, CEE, Sr RE, adaptive grid modeling
  • Russell, CEE head, emissions UAM
  • Weber, EAS, prof, aerosol in situ R&D
  • Zheng, EAS, RS, lab & field operations, CMB

arec measurements
AREC Measurements
  • Karsten Baumann,
    • Aerosol characterization
      • High-res precurser gases and low-res PM composition
    • Air quality monitoring network in TN and GA
      • Seasonal differences in AQ character {transport & formation}
    • Atmospheric chemistry and aerosol transformation


      • Mobile laboratory for coordinated integrated deployments
      • Vertical gradients utilizing high-rise buildings and towers
    • Diagnostic analyses and collaborative evaluations
      • Source identification, BL transport, photochemical transformation

benefits towards soa
Benefits … Towards SOA

Regional Difference: Higher OM/OC and OC/EC at more rural site!

Seasonal Difference: Lower OM/OC and higher OC/EC in winter.

Baumann et al., JGR in press

benefits of high rise platform o 3
Benefits of High-Rise PlatformO3

High-Rise O3 levels are significantly higher early mornings and lower at midday

benefits of high rise platform pm 2 5
Benefits of High-Rise PlatformPM2.5

Positive vertical [PM2.5] ‘gradients’ favored more often at night than at day

arec measurements13
AREC Measurements
  • Mike Bergin,
    • Aerosol characterization
      • Linking physical, optical and chemical properties
      • Natural background versus anthropogenic influence
    • Air quality and visibility
      • Track changes in mode and hygroscopicity (ssp vs sap)
      • Link observed changes to air mass history and transport
    • Climate change
      • Less uncertain aerosol parameters for climate models
      • Effects on regional climate, BL stability, photosynthesis
      • Spatial and temporal variations in radiative forcing

major findings
Major Findings
  • Tasmania—predominance of seasalt aerosol indicative of a true background marine site
    • Wavelength independence, predominance of coarse mode, strongly hygroscopic/deliquescent aerosol, light scattering >> light absorption
  • Portugal and Atlanta—anthropogenic perturbation of aerosol results in factor of 5-10 greater impact on radiative transfer
    • Strong wavelength dependence, predominance of fine mode, suppressed hygroscopic growth, light scattering > light absorption
  • Nepal—strong seasonal cycle with spring-time peak comparable to urban areas and possible monsoon impacts
    • Low concentrations during monsoon, Pre-monsoon “dusty period with evidence of long-range transport of mineral (Saharan?) dust

arec measurements16
AREC Measurements
  • Rodney Weber,
    • Aerosol chemical characterization (PILS)
      • High-resolution PM2.5 composition at ground & airborne
    • Source apportionment from transient events
      • Mobile versus point sources, biomass burning, dust
    • Aerosol chemistry w/in large field campaigns


      • Source apportionment in plumes (see transients above)
      • Chemical transformation of transported aerosol (box model)
      • New particle formation (nucleation)


Transient Events in Atlanta

Midday sulfate peaks from downmixed power plant plumes.

Morning rush hour EC/OC.

sources for atlanta sulfate
Sources for Atlanta Sulfate

Most intense during stagnation events. Links to health effects?! (Weber et al., JAWMA in Jan 2003)


TRACE-P Biomass Burning

  • Mixed plumes - near northern coastal areas of China, Korea, and Japan.
  • On average, about 305% of the fine PM mass in the mixed plumes is from BB emissions.
  • K+ is good tracer for BB.
  • Molar ratio of dK+/dSO42- useful to estimate relative influence of BB on PM2.5 mass in mixed plumes.
  • Limitation of the method
    • Dust contribution
    • Check for correlations

Ma et al., JGR, submitted 2002





F10 10015%

arec measurements20
AREC Measurements
  • Mei Zheng,
    • Aerosol particle-phase organics speciation
      • GC-MS analysis of high-volume samples
    • Field campaigns in SE-US and China


    • Chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model
      • Source apportionment to PM2.5 and OC


Ongoing Joint PBS*

Detect > 100 POC species

n-alkanes, branched alkanes, cycloalkanes

n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids

alkanedioic acids

PAHs, oxy-PAHs




resin acids

pimaric acid

abietic acid

sandaracopimaric acid

aromatic acids


*) US-DOD funded “Study of Air Quality Impacts Resulting from Prescribed Burning on Military Facilities” 2002.

source contributions to oc

Pensacola, FL October 1999






Other organic







Meat cooking





Source Contributions to OC

Zheng et al., ES&T 2002

arec modeling
AREC Modeling
  • Mike Chang,

  • Thanos Nenes,
    • Inverse modeling
    • Urban Airshed Model (UAM)-AERO
      • successful in LA 1987 SCAQS (Lurmann et al., 1997)
      • SAPRC-90 gas phase mechanism (n=133, R=130)
      • Online aerosol dynamics with inorganic component resolved (H2O, Na, Cl, NO3, NH4,SO4), incl OC/EC
      • Evolution of aerosol described by mass balance
        • ISORROPIA (Nenes et al., 1998)

arec modeling24
AREC Modeling
  • Thanos Nenes,
    • UAM-AERO (continued)
      • Collaboration with the University of the Aegean
        • applied to simulate the atmospheric conditions in the Athens basin (Sotiropoulou et al., in preparation).
    • CAMx (
      • “Next-generation” modeling system
        • SAPRC-99 improved from version 90
        • Parallel processing & nested grid
        • Sotiropoulou et al., in preparation
    • Both can be nested into larger scale models

arec modeling25
AREC Modeling
  • Ted Russell,
  • Talat Odman,

    • Emissions modeling
      • Emissions inventory & inverse modeling
      • Onboard measurements
    • Regional air quality impacts modeling
      • Sensitivities to changes in anthropogenic emissions
      • Advanced adaptive grid modeling
      • Sub-regional pollutants transport & transformation


Mobile Emissions

On-Board Monitoring (A.Unal)

Effect of Traffic Congestion

on Vehicle Emissions

Allows measurement of vehicle emissions and engine parameters under real-world conditions

Enables finding relationships between vehicle emissions and traffic parameters


Adaptive Grid

Sensitivity Analysis

Computer Simulation with Air Quality Model



Impact to Downwind City

Controlled Burning

at Military Base

Adaptive Grid Modeling

Direct sensitivity analysis for predicting the air quality impacts of anthropogenic activities.

Part of DOD-funded “Study of Air Quality Impacts Resulting from Prescribed Burning on Military Facilities” 2003

superior o 3 predictions
Superior O3 Predictions

Sumner Co., TN

Graves Co., KY

minos asian monsoon plume modeled by match mpic

Additional AREC Contributors

MINOS Asian Monsoon Plume modeled by MATCH-MPIC

=> Lawrence et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 2002:

See also Lelieveld et al., Science 298, 2002

additional arec contributors
Additional AREC Contributors
  • Judy Curry, EAS Chair,
    • Robotic Aircraft UAV (Aerosonde, Seascan)
      • Small Size
      • Long Range & Endurance
      • Autonomous Operations
      • Automated Missions
      • Payload 2 to 5 kg
      • Sensor R&D
      • Ample Power > 100 watts
      • Real-Time Full-Motion Video

robotic aircraft uav
Robotic Aircraft UAV
  • Color Video System
    • Pan / Tilt / Zoom
    • Inertial Stabilization
    • Image Processing Eliminate Unwanted Motion
    • Analog Link to 30 Miles
    • Longer Range with Digital Compression

robotic aircraft uav34
Robotic Aircraft UAV

Skyhook Retrieval System for launch and retrieval over sea

US Patent 6,264,140

International Patents in Process

proposed gt measurements
Proposed GT Measurements
  • Complement existing monitoring network 
  • Establish comprehensive sites: urban, rural, high-rise, hill-top 
    • Identify rural location
    • Top of downtown high-rise best represents urban AQ
    • Olympic Village site if possible
    • Ideally, upgrade existing urban site in collaboration with locals 
    • Conduct advanced measurements 
  • Evaluate effects of public transportation mediation
    • relate AQ conditions to traffic activities
  • Analyze visibility degradation
    • Poor visibility is noticed by the public and associated with air pollution
    • Sources of degradation will be identified and quantified
    • Information useful in health impact analysis

proposed gt modeling
Proposed GT Modeling
  • Simulate Athens air quality during Olympics
    • Apply model with direct source-impact tool
    • Show impact of specific sources on ozone and PM species (diesel, biogenic, cooking, etc.)
    • Validate emissions inventory
  • Work with health scientists
    • Link emissions sources to air quality to health
    • Model exposure at finer scale than measurements

research topics
Research Topics
  • Measurements
  • Air Quality
    • Indoor
    • Outdoor
      • In Situ
      • Lidar
      • Satellite
  • Meteorology
  • Emissions Surveys
  • Traffic Monitoring
  • Health Monitoring
  • Modeling
  • Air Quality
  • Emissions
  • BL transport
  • Physical-Chemical
    • Transformation
  • Forecasting
  • Meteorology
  • Exposure
  • Health
  • Asthma in Athletes
  • Asthma in Athens
    • Population
  • Relationship of
    • Exposure to Respiratory and Cardiac Disease
  • Epidemiology

us research team
US Research Team
  • Gary G. Gimmestad – GT/GTRI
    • Senior Faculty Leader in remote sensing technology development
  • Leanne L. West – GT/GTRI
    • Co-Director of Health Science and Technology Research, UV lidar systems
  • Charlene Bayer – GT/GTRI
    • Indoor air quality, asthma triggers, exposure
  • Ted Russell – GT/CEE
    • Air quality modeling, emission inventories, visibility, exposure

us research team39
US Research Team
  • Karsten Baumann – GT/EAS
    • Field measurements coordinator, BL transport, physical-chemical transformation of atmospheric constituents
  • W. Gerald Teague – Emory Asthma Center
    • Relationship of air quality problems to asthma attacks
  • Michael S. Friedman – CDC
    • Effects of air quality problems on human health

anticipated benefits
Anticipated Benefits
  • Better understanding of Athens air quality
  • Demonstration of improvement strategies
  • Improved forecasting
  • Link between sources and health
  • Insight for “Green Olympics” in Beijing 2008

These benefits will help all cities with air quality problems, give insights to improving human health, and will become part of the International Olympics Legacy