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The Early Presidencies. Establishing Precedent & History. The Constitution. Officially Recognized In 1789 The Constitution Recognized An Executive Branch (The Presidency) Natural Born Citizen 35 Years of Age Lived 14 Years Within The U.S. National Capital Established In New York City

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the early presidencies

The Early Presidencies

Establishing Precedent & History

the constitution
The Constitution
  • Officially Recognized In 1789
  • The Constitution Recognized An Executive Branch (The Presidency)
    • Natural Born Citizen
    • 35 Years of Age
    • Lived 14 Years Within The U.S.
  • National Capital Established In New York City
  • George Washington Takes Oath of Office In New York On 30th April, 1789
george washington
George Washington
  • Born 22nd February, 1732
  • Father A Virginia Planter Near Wakefield Virginia
  • 1748 Began Surveying Career On The Frontier
  • Served As An Officer During The French & Indian War
  • Wealthy Virginia Planter, Married To Martha Dandridge Custis
  • Served As Commander-in-Chief During The American Revolution
  • Served Politically During The Constitutional Era
washington takes office
Washington Takes Office
  • Unanimously Elected By The Electoral College
    • 1789 & 1792
  • John Adams Picked As Washington’s Vice President
    • Second Pick For President
  • Inaugurated At Federal Hall In New York City
washington takes office1
Washington Takes Office
  • Congress Votes To Pay Washington $25,000 Annually
    • Refused Salary
    • Independently Wealthy
    • Eventually Accepted So As Not To Limit The Office To The Wealthy
  • Immediately Begins Setting Precedent
    • Takes Title “Mr. President”
    • Establishes A Cabinet
    • Judiciary Act of 1789
    • 2 Terms Of Service
washington as president
Washington As President
  • Confident Delegator Of Power & Administrator
  • Residence Act of 1790
    • Capital Moved To Philadelphia
      • Washington Rotates His Slave Staff
    • Nations Capital Would Lie Along The Potomac River
  • Washington Personally Oversees Surveying Work Of Nations Capital
  • “The City of Washington in the Territory of Columbia” Named In His Honor
issues of the presidency
Issues Of The Presidency
  • Massive National Debt
    • $52 Million
  • Lacked Military Support
    • No Standing Navy
    • Only 400 Men In The U.S. Army
  • Indian Uprising/Raids In The Northwest Territory (Ohio River Valley) 1790 & 1791
indian uprisings
Indian Uprisings
  • Raids Along The Ohio River Valley
  • Initial Military Efforts Proved To Be A Failure
  • Little Turtle, Blue Jacket, & Tecumseh Main Native American Leaders
  • Anthony Wayne
    • Commander Of The American Legion
    • Spent Time Training For Forest Warfare
  • Battle of Fallen Timbers
    • 1794
    • American Victory
    • Treaty of Greenville “Officially” Ended Uprising
whiskey rebellion
Whiskey Rebellion
  • Secretary Hamilton Proposes A Tax On Liquor
    • Signed Into Action In 1791
    • Bitterly Opposed By Frontier Farmers
      • Traditionally Converted Excess Grain Into Whiskey
  • Attacks By Farmers On Tax Collectors Became Violent
  • Washington Calls Up State Militias
    • Washington Personally Leads Army Of 13,000
    • October Of 1794 Uprising Fizzles Out
    • Washington Proved Capable Of Leading The Country & The Army
foreign affairs
Foreign Affairs
  • Great Britain
    • Britain Refuses To Adhere To Treaty of Paris
    • Kept Forts Within American Territory
    • Made Threats Against American Shipping In The West Indies & On The Atlantic Ocean
    • Jay Treaty, 1795
      • Negotiated By Chief Justice John Jay
      • British Would Evacuate Forts
      • Small Scale Shipping Would Return
      • America Would Remain Neutral Of French Affairs
      • Commissions Set Up To Negotiate U.S. to U.K. Debt
foreign affairs1
Foreign Affairs
  • Barbary Bribes
    • Barbary Pirates Attack American Shipping
    • Treaty of Tripoli
      • Signed Between American & Pasha of Tripoli
      • Washington Agreed To Protection Money To Keep American Ships Safe
  • Spain
    • More Productive
    • Pinckney’s Treaty, 1795
    • Cleared Relations Between The U.S. & Spain
the french revolution
The French Revolution
  • July 14, 1789
    • The Storming Of The Bastille In Paris
    • French Revolution Begins
  • Many Americans Supported The French Efforts To Overthrow The Monarchy
  • U.S. Sent Aid To White Slave Holders In Haiti
    • Haitian Slave Rebellion Extremely Bloody
    • Washington Sympathized With Ousted Slave Holders
the french revolution1
The French Revolution
  • 1793, France Began Taking Extreme Measures
    • King Louis XVI Executed-1/21/1793
    • Queen Marie Antoinette Executed-10/16/1793
    • Hundreds Of Clergy, Nobles, & Revolutionary Dissidents Slaughtered At The Guillotine's Blade
  • The U.S. Government Remained Neutral, Public Cried For Action
  • Edmond-Charles Genet Sent To Washington’s Second Inauguration
  • Proclamation of Neutrality, 1793 Officially Drew The Line For American Involvement In Europe
retirement from office
Retirement From Office
  • By The End Of This Second Term Washington Was Exhausted From Public Service
  • Issued Public Farewell Address In 1796
  • Returned Home To Mt. Vernon
  • December 12, 1799
    • Spent Day Riding Horseback In The Snow & Rain Inspecting His Farm
    • Awoke Ill The Next Morning And Was Bled
    • Passes Away On December 14, 1799
    • The World Mourned Washington’s Death
john adams
John Adams
  • Born October 30, 1735
  • Came From A Moderately Wealthy/Influential Family
  • Studied At Harvard; Considered Becoming A Minister; Chose Law Instead
  • On October 25, 1764, He Married His Third Cousin Abigail
    • Had Five Surviving Children
  • Often Unpopular And Contentious
the presidency
The Presidency
  • Served As President From 1797-1801
  • Kept Many Of The Programs & Institutions Washington Had Created
  • In Office He Was Described As “Prickly”
    • Fought With His Own Party (Federalists) As Well As The Democratic-Republicans
  • Spent Much Of His Term At His Massachusetts Home
  • First President To Live Within The White House
foreign relations
Foreign Relations
  • Tried To Remain Neutral In European Affairs
  • French Viewed American As Britain’s Junior
    • Began Seizing American Ships & Sailors
  • The XYZ Affair
    • The Adams’ Administration Wanted To Negotiate With The French
    • Three French Diplomats (X,Y,& Z) Demanded Huge Bribes Before Beginning Talks
    • Finally Pushed Americans Away From French Support
foreign affairs2
Foreign Affairs
  • Quasi-War Broke Out Between The French & The Americans In 1798
    • Adams & The Congress Pushed To Improve The Army & Navy In Preparedness For An Attack
  • Convention of 1800
    • American Diplomats Sent To France
    • Napoleon Agreed That A Conflict Was Useless
    • American Freed From Any Entanglement In European Affairs For The Time Being
the alien sedition acts
The Alien & Sedition Acts
  • Series Of Four Separate Acts, 1798
  • Government Could Arrest & Deport Immigrants Who Spoke Against The Establishment
  • Worked Against The Democratic-Republican Efforts
    • Worked Heavily Naturalizing Immigrants
  • Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions Declared Acts Unconstitutional
election of 1800
Election Of 1800
  • He & Charles Pinckney Fought Hard Over The Republicans Jefferson & Aaron Burr
  • Lost By 8 Electoral Votes To Jefferson
    • Alexander Hamilton Had Worked To Undermine Adams’ Campaign
    • Jefferson Extremely Popular In The South
  • Midnight Judges
    • Judiciary Act of 1801, Created Series Of Appeals Courts
    • Loyal Federalists Judges Appointed To Fill These Courts
    • John Marshall Picked As The Fourth Supreme Court Chief Justice
post presidency years
Post-Presidency Years
  • Returned Home To Massachusetts
    • Did Not Attend Jefferson’s Inauguration
  • 1812, Reconciled With Jefferson
  • Abigail Died In 1818
  • July 4th, 1826
    • Fiftieth Anniversary Of The Declaration of Independence
    • John Adams Died
    • Jefferson Passed Hours Prior
    • Passed While His Son Still Remained In Office
thomas jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
  • Born April 13, 1743
    • 3rd of 10 Children
  • Born Into A Well Connected Family
  • Well Educated
    • Became A Planter, Lawyer, & Teacher
  • January 1, 1772 Married Martha Skelton
    • Had Six Children, Only One Lived Beyond 25
    • September 6th, 1782, Martha Died
  • The Relationship With Sally Hemmings
  • Politically Involved, Nationally & Internationally
jefferson presidency
Jefferson Presidency
  • Served As President From 1801-1809
  • Highly Supported In The South
  • Electoral Vote A Tie
    • Jefferson & Aaron Burr
    • Hamilton Undermines Burr & Wins Jefferson The Election (Burr Would Eventually Kill Hamilton In A Duel)
  • Pushed To End Adams Era Policies
  • Paid Down National Debt
    • 80 to 52 Million Dollars
jefferson presidency1
Jefferson Presidency
  • Pushed For Major Cuts To The Army & Navy
  • Streamlined Washington Bureaucracy
  • Sought Financial Benefits By Selling Off Frontier Lands & Duties At Seaports
  • Marbury vs. Madison
    • Supreme Court Case
    • Marbury: A Midnight Judge
    • Madison: Jefferson’s Secretary of State, Refused To Deliver Marbury’s Appointment Papers
    • Marbury Victorious
the expanding nation
The Expanding Nation
  • Nation Needed To Stretch Out
  • Louisiana Purchase
    • 1803
    • France Needed The Money, France No Longer Needed The Land
    • 828,000 Square Miles
  • Lewis & Clark Expedition
    • Meriwether Lewis & William Clark
    • Traveled As Explorers, Scientists, & Ambassadors
    • Aided By Sacagawea They Blazed A Trail To The Pacific
    • Brought Back Valuable Information & Scientific Data
barbary war
Barbary War
  • Barbary Pirates Again Interfering With American Trade In The Mediterranean
  • Barbary Leaders Demanding More Money To Keep Shipping Safe
  • Jefferson Decided The U.S. Could Fight The Pirates
  • Jefferson Sent A Naval Force Into the Mediterranean
  • Systematic Bombardment Of Tripoli
  • Americans Come Out Victorious At The End Of The War, June 10th, 1805
retirement from office1
Retirement From Office
  • Retires From Office In 1809
  • Helped Establish The University of Virginia
  • Health Began To Fail In 1825
    • By 1826 He Was Confined To His Bed
  • Died On July 4th, 1826
    • Died A Few Hours Before John Adams
  • Though Born Wealthy, Died In Debt
james madison
James Madison
  • Born March 16th, 1751
    • Oldest Of 12 Children
  • Father Wealthy Tobacco Planter
  • Highly Educated
  • Married Dolley Todd 9/1/1794
    • Adopted Her Son John
  • One Of The Authors Of The Federalists Papers
  • Politically Active
    • Worked For Religious Freedoms
    • “Father of the Constitution”, Writer Of The Bill of Rights
madison presidency
Madison Presidency
  • Served From 1809-1817
  • Initially Worked Against The National Bank
    • Would Expire In 1811
    • Used To Finance The War of 1812
    • Rechartered The Bank In 1814
  • Dealt With The Second Barbary War
    • Conclusive End To American Tribute To Tripoli
war of 1812
War of 1812
  • British Navy Interfering With American Trade
    • Seizing American Ships, Impressing American Sailors
  • Madison Pushes Congress To Prepare For War
    • Southern & Western “War Hawks” Back Madison
  • War Declared By Congress In June Of 1812
  • American Launches A Canadian Invasion
    • Utter Failure
    • American Troops Perform Poorly
  • The American Navy Redeems Itself With A Victory At Lake Erie
war of 18121
War of 1812
  • Native American Skirmishes On The Frontier
    • Tecumseh Killed In October Of 1813
    • Andrew Jackson Defeats Creek & Seminole Forces In AL & FL (Respectively)
  • Washington Threatened
    • Four Major British Forces Land In The U.S.
      • Maine, New York, Maryland, & New Orleans
    • The Capital Threatened With Capture
    • Madison Flees The City Before British Troops Arrive
    • Dolley Madison Remains In The City
war of 18122
War of 1812
  • Washington Threatened
    • British Forces Began Nearing The Capital
    • Mrs. Madison Empties The White House Of President Madison’s Letters, Valuables, & Art
      • Saves The Portrait Of George Washington
    • British Capture The City
      • Burn The White House & Capital Building
      • A Terrible Storm Kills Many British Troops & Slows Their Advance
war of 18123
War of 1812
  • Battle Of Fort McHenry
    • Francis Scott Key
    • Poem “Star-Spangled Banner”
  • Treaty Of Ghent
  • Battle Of New Orleans
    • Americans Led By Andrew Jackson
    • 71 American Casualties, 2036 British Deaths
    • American Victory
    • Fought After The Treaty of Ghent Signed
post presidency
Post-Presidency
  • Ushered In The “Era of Good Feelings”
  • Retired To Plantation At Montpelier
  • Left The Presidency Poorer Than When He Entered
  • Bedridden Over Anxiety Of Debt
  • Latter Years He Remained Politically Active
  • June 28, 1836
    • Madison Died
    • Last Of The Founding Fathers