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Networked Robotic Systems. An Overview Dr. Thad Roppel. CRR Lab - A Brief History. Outgrowth of work started at Eglin AFB in 1992 Infrared / Millimeter-Wave Radar Sensor Fusion Follow-on funding  DARPA  e-NOSE Best sensor platform? Robots Many robots are better than one robot.

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networked robotic systems

Networked Robotic Systems

An Overview

Dr. Thad Roppel

crr lab a brief history
CRR Lab - A Brief History
  • Outgrowth of work started at Eglin AFB in 1992
  • Infrared / Millimeter-Wave Radar Sensor Fusion
  • Follow-on funding  DARPA  e-NOSE
  • Best sensor platform? Robots
  • Many robots are better than one robot..
sensor fusion laboratory

Problem Complexity: Human vs. Machine

  • Object recognition
  • Linguistics
  • Extraction of Relevant Features from Sensor Arrays
  • Judging

HARD

Maximum Potential Benefit

MACHINE

  • Thresholding
  • Tallying
  • Arithmetic
  • Logic

EASY

HARD

EASY

HUMAN

SENSOR FUSION LABORATORY
ir mmw data fusion
IR / MMW DATA FUSION

Support: AFOSR 1992-93

Project Goal: Improved identification of military vehicles from aerial scenes.

T-62 Tank

M-113 Armored Personnel Carrier (APC)

LANCE Missile Launcher

ir mmw fusion cont d

APPROACH:

IR SCENE PIXELS

APC

NEURAL NETWORK

TANK

LAUNCHER

MMW RADAR DATA

IR / MMW Fusion, cont’d

OVERALL RESULT: 14 % improvement with sensor fusion

PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT:

  • Multiple permutations
  • Confusion matrix
  • Average result
chemical sensor arrays

COMMAND

STATION

PLUME

RF LINK

VEHICLE

WIND

SENSORS

ROAD

Chemical Sensor Arrays

Support: DARPA 1997-99

PROJECT GOAL: Improved identification and detection of chemical plumes in non-laboratory conditions.

canine training at ibds
Canine Training at IBDS

Auburn is world-renowned for training of detection dogs at the Institute for Biological Detection Systems.

chemical sensor arrays cont d

5

4.5

4

3.5

3

Sensor Voltage

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0

100

200

300

400

500

Timestep

Odor Sensor Array

Sensor Outputs

Chemical Sensor Arrays, cont’d

Sensor Array Dynamic Response

chemical sensor arrays cont d1

Below Threshold

Above Threshold

5

4.5

2

4

4

3.5

6

3

Sensor Voltage

Sensor Number

2.5

8

2

10

1.5

Sensors 1-15

12

1

0.5

14

0

0

100

200

300

400

500

10

20

30

40

50

Timestep

Timestep

Thresholded Binary Output

Raw Output

Chemical Sensor Arrays, cont’d

Preprocessing

chemical sensor arrays cont d2

Sample 1

Sample 2

Sample 3

1

1

ace

20

20

amm

dal

g87

g89

g93

oil

pth

xyl

5

10

15

5

10

15

5

10

15

Sensor #

Sensor #

Sensor #

Chemical Sensor Arrays, cont’d
chemical sensor arrays cont d3

Time Evolution of Confusion Matrix: Forward Sequence

Trained for 20 timesteps

1 timestep

5 timesteps

10 timesteps

ace

amm

1

dal

network response

g87

0.9

g89

0.8

g93

oil

0.7

pth

0.6

xyl

0.5

input categories

0.4

0.3

20 timesteps

50 timesteps

Ideal Response

0.2

ace

0.1

amm

dal

network response

0

g87

g89

g93

oil

pth

xyl

Chemical Sensor Arrays, cont’d
chemical sensor arrays cont d4

Time Evolution of Confusion Matrix: Random Sequence

Trained for 20 timesteps

1 timestep

5 timesteps

10 timesteps

ace

amm

1

dal

network response

g87

0.9

g89

0.8

g93

0.7

oil

pth

0.6

xyl

0.5

input categories

0.4

20 timesteps

50 timesteps

Ideal Response

0.3

ace

0.2

amm

0.1

dal

network response

0

g87

g89

g93

oil

pth

xyl

Chemical Sensor Arrays, cont’d
biomimetics
BIOMIMETICS

Support: Under discussion with AF Advanced Guidance Division, Munitions Directorate at Eglin AFB

PROJECT GOAL: Learn sensor fusion from animals. Apply this to flying a drone to target using onboard video.

Flies land accurately

Bats catch evading insects in flight

Bees find flowers

crr lab history cont d
CRR Lab – History, Cont’d
  • Feb. 2006: Invited Joe Albree – Math Prof. at AUM - to speak to HKN about history of the engineering profession in USA.
  • I didn’t know he co-authored a book about the history of West Point with…
  • Gen. Chris Arney, ARO program in Multi-Agent Systems, who was organizing…
  • LIMES 2006 at West Point. Language for Intelligent Machines.
slide20

Cooperative Autonomous Robots for Reconnaissance

White Paper for Chris Arney, ARO

Prepared 8/29/2005 by Thad Roppel, ECE Dept., Auburn University

Contact: roppeth@auburn.edu, (334) 844-1814

slide21

Hardware Testbed for Collaborative Robotics using

Wireless

Communication

Chris Wilson – MS Dec 2009

slide28

Eric Hildebrand ELEC 5530 HW 4 November 10, 2010

Dominion

The year was 2143, and humanity was at the will of a single man. Known only as “Roppeth”, an evil mastermind had created an army that defeated everything humanity threw at it. No one knew where this army came from, but it could only be assumed that Roppeth created the first generation, and each new generation was spawned by the previous. What made the army so overpowering was the fact that they were autonomous robots controlled by the will of their leader but could act and behave independently from his control. These robots were bipeds, slightly larger than an average human, but completely overpowering to any human counterpart. …

good news
Good News…
  • How to Survive a Robot Uprising
asimo
ASIMO
  • Highly functional biped
  • The future…?
  • Video
  • But for now, cooperation is more like this….
oct 2008 robotics and autonomous systems special issue on network robot systems
Oct. 2008 – Robotics and Autonomous Systems - Special Issue on Network Robot Systems
  • A probabilistic framework for entire WSN localization using a mobile robot
  • Action evaluation for mobile robot global localization in cooperative environments
  • Autonomous functional configuration of a network robot system
  • Framework and service allocation for network robot platform and execution of interdependent services
  • Robots in the kitchen: Exploiting ubiquitous sensing and actuation
  • Human behavior recognition using unconscious cameras and a visible robot in a network robot system
  • End-to-end congestion control protocols for remote programming of robots, using heterogeneous networks: A comparative analysis
nrs definition
NRS Definition
  • The IEEE Society of Robotics and Automation Technical Committee on Networked Robots provides the following definition of Networked Robots
  • Physical embodiment: Any NRS has to have at least a physical robot which incorporates hardware and software capabilities
  • Autonomous capabilities: A physical robot must have autonomous capabilities to be considered as a basic element of a NRS.
  • Network-based cooperation: The robots, environment sensors and humans must communicate and cooperate through a network.
  • Environment sensors and actuators: Besides the sensors of the robots, the environment must include other sensors, such as vision cameras and laser range finders, and other actuators, such as speakers and switches
  • Human-robot interaction: In order to consider a system as NRS, the system must have a human-robot related activity.
nrs definition expanded
NRS Definition Expanded

Two subclasses of Networked Robots:

(1) Tele-operated

*human supervisors send commands and receive feedback via the network.

-Medicine, education, search & rescue,…

(2) Autonomous,

*robots and sensors exchange data via the network.

*sensor network extends the effective sensing range of the robots

*allows them to communicate with each other over long distances to coordinate their activity.

*The robots in turn can deploy, repair, and maintain the sensor network to increase its longevity, and utility.

*Broad challenge: develop a science base that couples communication to control to enable such new capabilities

network robot types
Network Robot Types

Three types of network robots:

  • Visible - can be seen
    • humanoid, pet, stuffed animal, etc.
  • Virtual - acts in a cyber space and makes use of information available on Internet.
    • avatar agent on a mobile phone or info kiosk
  • Unconscious - users are not aware of the presence of the robot
    • camera or a sensor embedded in

infrastructure

japan nrs
Japan NRS
  • Japan NRS consists of four major Japanese companies:
  • NTT - telecommunications;
  • Toshiba - home appliances;
  • Mitsubishi Heavy Industries - industrial robots
  • ATR- telecommunication and social robotics R&D
nrs in usa
NRS in USA
  • NetBot Lab at TAMU (Prof. Dezhen Song)
  • Ghostrider video clip
  • DARPA, JPL
  • Georgia Tech
wsn localization cont d
WSN Localization, cont’d

Scheme of the approach. The signal strength is used to estimate the position of the nodes of the network. The mobile robot computes centrally an initial estimation employing a separate Particle Filter for each node. In the second step, a decentralized Information Filter integrates information received from neighbor nodes and the robot, at each node.

(b): An example, a ground robot (Romeo) driving through the network.

ros willow garage
ROS (Willow Garage)
  • Willow Garage
conclusion
Conclusion

Robots everywhere!!