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Western civilization i. Beginnings – reformation. August 30 : Beginnings. Beginnings Mesopotamia Egypt. Beginnings. History of civilization: how to date? Definition of “text” Hunter/gatherer vs. producer/settler Definition of “culture” Definition of “civilization”. Beginnings.

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western civilization i

Western civilization i

Beginnings – reformation

august 30 beginnings
August 30: Beginnings
  • Beginnings
  • Mesopotamia
  • Egypt
beginnings
Beginnings
  • History of civilization: how to date?
  • Definition of “text”
  • Hunter/gatherer vs. producer/settler
  • Definition of “culture”
  • Definition of “civilization”
beginnings1
Beginnings
  • History of civilization: how to date?
    • How far back “history” takes us
    • What is datable
  • Definition of “text”
  • Hunter/gatherer vs. producer/settler
  • Definition of “culture”
  • Definition of “civilization”
beginnings2
Beginnings
  • History of civilization: how to date?
    • How far back “history” takes us (and other disciplines)
    • What is datable
  • Definition of “text”
    • Artifacts that are left behind (natural, artificial)
    • Especially the written word
  • Hunter/gatherer vs. producer/settler
  • Definition of “culture”
  • Definition of “civilization”
beginnings3
Beginnings
  • History of civilization: how to date?
    • How far back “history” takes us (and other disciplines)
    • What is datable
  • Definition of “text”
    • Artifacts that are left behind (natural, artificial)
    • Especially the written word
  • Hunter/gatherer vs. producer/settler
  • Definition of “culture”
    • All the ways humans adjust to their environment, organize experiences, and hand over traditions
  • Definition of “civilization”
beginnings4
Beginnings
  • History of civilization: how to date?
    • How far back “history” takes us (and other disciplines)
    • What is datable
  • Definition of “text”
    • Artifacts that are left behind (natural, artificial)
    • Especially the written word
  • Hunter/gatherer vs. producer/settler
  • Definition of “culture”
    • All the ways humans adjust to their environment, organize experiences, and hand over traditions
  • Definition of “civilization”
    • Urban culture, with distinct characteristics
beginnings5
Beginnings
  • Various ages: paleolithic, neolithic, bronze, iron (know why they are distinguished and relative dating)
  • The marks of civilization: agriculture leading to cities, metals, and WRITING
    • Civilization exhibits social hierarchy
    • Civilization produces skilled arts and crafts
mesopotamia1
Mesopotamia
  • c. 3500-3000bc: dvlpmt of Sumerian cities (esp. Uruk)
  • c. 2800-2370bc: Early Dynastic period of Sumerian city-states*
  • c. 2370-2340bc: Sargon est. Akkadian dynasty & empire

(* the setting of Gilgamesh)

mesopotamia2
Mesopotamia
  • c. 2125-2027bc: 3rd Dynasty of Ur**
  • c. 2000-1800bc: Amorites in Mesopotamia
  • c. 1792-1750bc: Hammurabi reigns
  • c. 1500bc: Est. of Kassite Dynasty at Babylon

(** the earliest oral and written record of Gilgamesh)

mesopotamia 4 th to mid 3 rd millennium 3500 2340bc
Mesopotamia: 4thto mid-3rd millennium (3500-2340bc)
  • Uruk and the other Sumerian city-states were redistributive economies
    • Central authority controls resources and redistributes
    • King and / or temple priests
  • Need for land leads to expansion and war; military leaders eventually amass power and become kings
    • Religious tradition confirms right to rule
  • City-states never united, but a common culture
    • Diplomacy and trade
    • Common pantheon
    • But different languages (Sumerian, Akkadian)
mesopotamia sargon s akkadian empire
Mesopotamia: Sargon’s Akkadian empire
  • First empire
  • Capital at Akkad / Agade (modern Baghdad?): an exercise in geographical space and center (tribute comes from governed city-states)
  • First standing army
  • Expeditions to far reaches like Anatolia and Iran: why? (economic answer)
  • New military technology: composite bow and chariot
  • Anarchy in 2250bc
mesopotamia ur iii and the rise of assyria
Mesopotamia: Ur III and the Rise of Assyria
  • Ur rises up in the space vacated by Akkad’s fall
  • Bureaucratic administration (therefore has left us documentary evidence)
  • Decentralized military administration
  • Continuing identification with ruler as god and king
  • Fell c. 2000bc with Amorite invation
mesopotamia assyria and babylon
Mesopotamia: Assyria and Babylon
  • Mercantile economy develops parallel to redistributive economy: trade routes
  • Assur (Assyria) builds on this prosperity 2000-1780
  • Hammurabi (r. 1792-1750) dominates in Mesopotamia: kingdom of Babylon
    • Centralized administration
    • Law code
  • Babylon shrinks by 1650 (northern Babylon); Kassites take over rule by 1400
mesopotamia3
Mesopotamia
  • Important points about civilization per Mesopotamia:
    • Cities
    • Writing (cuneiform): earliest is c. 3200bc
    • Agriculture
    • Ziggurat / religion (polytheistic, pantheon) / public policy and administration (Sumerian lawcodes: 2350bc; Hammurabi 1750bc; patriarchy)
    • Space and center
egypt1
Egypt
  • 3100-2700bc Early Dynastic Period (I-II)
  • 2700-2200bc Old Kingdom (III-VI)
  • 2200-2052bc 1st Intermediate Period (VII-XI)
  • 2052-1650bc Middle Kingdom (XII-XIII)*
  • 1650-1550bc 2nd Intermediate Period (XIV-XVII)
  • 1550-1075bc New Kingdom (XVIII-XX)**

*The time of Jacob (Israel) and Joseph in Egypt

**The time of Moses in Egypt

egypt2
Egypt
  • Important points about civilization per Egypt:
    • Agriculture
    • Writing
    • Religion / public policy and administration
    • Space and center
summary of beginnings
Summary of Beginnings
  • Main points to remember: