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Chapter 1 continued. Tuesday, September 7, 2010. Context influences behavior. Context - Context Minimization Error – Fundamental Attribution Error – . Context-Free / Single Context Assessment. Example: What is competent behavior? Between people/groups

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chapter 1 continued

Chapter 1 continued

Tuesday, September 7, 2010

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

context influences behavior

Context influences behavior

What is Community Psychology? (Chapter 1)

slide3

Context -

  • Context Minimization Error –
  • Fundamental Attribution Error –

What is Community Psychology? (Chapter 1)

context free single context assessment
Context-Free / Single Context Assessment
  • Example: What is competent behavior?
    • Between people/groups
      • e.g., ______________________________
    • Within people across settings/life spheres
      • Assessment of a personal characteristic in a single setting (e.g., _____________)

What is Community Psychology? (Chapter 1)

context based assessment
Context-Based Assessment
  • Competence as mastery of culturally defined, familiar activities in everyday life
  • Examples:
      • _________________________________________
      • _________________________________________

What is Community Psychology? (Chapter 1)

slide7

Ecology:

  • Ecological questions for any construct:
    • Who is it good for?
    • Under what circumstances is it good?
    • With respect to what outcomes is it good?

What is Community Psychology? (Chapter 1)

context dependent vs context free questions

Context-Dependent vs. Context-Free Questions

What is Community Psychology? (Chapter 1)

is self esteem good
Is self-esteem good?
  • Who is it good for?
  • Under what circumstances is it good?
  • With respect to what outcomes is it good?

What is Community Psychology? (Chapter 1)

practice is social support good
Practice: Is social support good?
  • Who is it good for?
  • Under what circumstances is it good?
  • With respect to what outcomes is it good?

What is Community Psychology? (Chapter 1)

values community psychology
Values & Community Psychology
  • What are values?

“A value is a conception, explicit or implicit, distinctive of an individual or characteristic of a group, of the desirable which influences the selection from available modes, means, and ends of action” – Clyde Kluckhohn (1951)

What is Community Psychology? (Chapter 1)

how values influence psychology
How Values Influence Psychology
  • Problem definition determines problem solution (Caplan & Nelson)
  • Values determine what we think is important to study & not study
  • Values shape how we interpret what we find (heredity/environment I.Q. debate)
  • Addressing values draws attention to when our values & actions do not match
    • Ex: Stereotype Threat Studies

What is Community Psychology? (Chapter 1)

why community psychology requires discourse in values
Why Community Psychology Requires Discourse in Values
  • Role of “value-free” science in oppression
    • _____________________________________
    • _____________________________________
  • Values & social change— values embodied in social arrangements
    • ______________________________________
    • ______________________________________

What is Community Psychology? (Chapter 1)

how did community psychology develop

How did Community Psychology Develop?

Chapter 2

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

slide15

Think about your past. Think about a pivotal incident that has changed the way you are today.

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

community psychology begins swampscott conference 1965
Community Psychology “Begins”: Swampscott Conference - 1965
  • Started as conference about training professionals for community mental health
  • Ended up creating new field that went beyond community mental health

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

psychology after world war ii
Psychology After World War II
  • Lab-based
  • No clinical psychology
  • No national institutes
  • Many veterans
  • Boulder Conference (1949)

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

psychology after world war ii implications of boulder
Psychology After World War II: Implications of Boulder
  • Who goes to VA hospitals?
  • Who does not?
  • Who were psychologists then?

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

critical paradigm decisions of boulder conference
Critical Paradigm Decisions of Boulder Conference
  • Focus on Remedial Helping Roles
    • Therapist
    • Psychological Tester (Assessment)
  • Internship setting of VA Hospitals
    • Delineated populations
    • Subservient to medicine

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

crisis of therapy 1950s
Crisis of Therapy: 1950s
  • Is psychological treatment better than no treatment? (Hans Eysenck)
      • State hospital patients vs. those not in hospitals
      • Who got better?

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

crisis of resources 1950s
Crisis of Resources: 1950s
  • Epidemiological/Prevalence studies:
    • Midtown Manhattan
    • Nova Scotia
  • Conclusion
    • Too many persons with problems
    • Not enough resources IF psychotherapy & testing are all we have available

Bottom Line: ____________________________________

_________________________________________________

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

3 important developments late 1950s 1960s
3 Important Developments:Late 1950s-1960s
  • Deinstitutionalization: Reform in mental health system from hospitalization to community care
    • Psychotropic drugs allowed individuals in hospitals to return to communities
    • Inadequate community resources to maintain ex-patients
    • Realization that community supports needed

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

3 important developments late 1950s 1960s1
3 Important Developments: Late 1950s-1960s

2. Mental health consultation

  • Radiating Change
  • 3 party system:
    • _________________
    • _________________
    • _________________

3. Paraprofessional Movement

  • ______________________________________
  • Helping roles previously reserved for Ph.D.s

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

emergence of prevention as alternative to treatment
Emergence of Prevention as Alternative to Treatment
  • “No mass disorder afflicting humankind has ever been eliminated or brought under control by attempts to treat the affected individual”
  • WHY?

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

slide25

First-order change:

  • Second-order change:

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

first order vs second order change
First-order vs. Second-order change
  • “Musical Chairs” homelessness analogy
    • First-order change:
    • Second-order change:

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

early examples of preventive services
Early Examples of Preventive Services
  • Human Relations Service (1948; Wellesley, MA )
    • Coconut Grove nightclub fire in Boston
    • 1st mental health service center to emphasize prevention
    • consultation to schools/police
    • Support groups for parents

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

federal government steps in
Federal Government Steps In:
  • Community Mental Health Centers Act (1963)
    • Localizes Services
    • Creates community boards
    • Involves paraprofessionals in service delivery
    • Mandates consultation and education-outreach to the community

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

swampscott conference 1965
Swampscott Conference - 1965
  • Conference on training professionals for community mental health
  • Ended up creating community psychology

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

community psychology
Community Psychology
  • New field would concern “psychological processes that link social systems with individual behavior in complex interaction” (Bennett et al., 1966)

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

swampscott vision
Swampscott Vision
  • 2 new ways of affecting change
    • Advocacy for those without adequate social resources
      • Identification of at-risk groups
    • Policy advocacy / analysis
      • Head Start
      • War on Poverty / Community-based Orgs

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

swampscott vision1
Swampscott Vision
  • Community intervention / collaboration
  • Prevention in key social systems (e.g., schools, juvenile justice)
  • Importance of social environment as influence on behavior

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

swampscott commitments
Swampscott Commitments
  • Human diversity
  • Empowerment
    • Citizen as expert
  • Theory

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)

next time
Next Time

How Did Community Psychology Develop? (Chapter 2)