Welcome to the Information Sharing Workshop. NIGB would like to thank County Durham and Tees Valley Information Governance Leads Group who allowed us to adapt this workshop from their original workshop materials. National Information Governance Board www.nigb.nhs.uk
NIGB would like to thank County Durham and Tees Valley Information Governance Leads Group who allowed us to adapt this workshop from their original workshop materials
Main Office Number 020 76337052Speakers
ConfidentiallyToday is About…
Information Governance (IG) is the overall framework of policies, procedures, standards and responsibilities for managing an organisation’s information assets. It covers all information in all formats (manual & electronic).
Main areas of Information Governance:
Managing information governance
Information/ records management
Information Quality assurance
Codes of Practice
FOI Act 2000What is Information Governance?
Information Quality Assurance policies, procedures, standards and responsibilities for managing an organisation’s information assets. It covers all information in all formats (manual & electronic).
Codes of Practice
Information Security Assurance
Care Record Guarantees
Caldicott ReportWhat are the Standards?
helps all staff to manage information policies, procedures, standards and responsibilities for managing an organisation’s information assets. It covers all information in all formats (manual & electronic).
helps to ensure all staff comply with the law
helps staff to share information across organisations
can help to improve decision making
To meet obligations and responsibilitiesWhy is IG Important?
IG ensures policies, procedures, standards and responsibilities for managing an organisation’s information assets. It covers all information in all formats (manual & electronic).personal information is dealt with legally, securely, ethically, efficiently and effectively and we can ensure the confidence of the individualSo…..
The Data Protection Act 1998 policies, procedures, standards and responsibilities for managing an organisation’s information assets. It covers all information in all formats (manual & electronic).
The Human Rights Act 1998
The Health and Social Care Act 2008
Common Law of Confidentiality
FOI Act 2000
Other Legislation e.g.
Children Act, Mental Capacity Act, Gender recognition Act, Adoption Act.The Legal Context
A policies, procedures, standards and responsibilities for managing an organisation’s information assets. It covers all information in all formats (manual & electronic).duty of confidence arises when one person discloses information to another (e.g. individual to clinician, client to social worker) in circumstances where it is reasonable to expect that the information will be held in confidence or where it is obvious the information is confidential in nature.
The duty of confidence -
Is a legal obligation derived from case-law.
Is a requirement within professional codes of conduct.
Is included within many employment contracts as a specific requirement linked to disciplinary procedures.A Duty of Confidence
PROTECT policies, procedures, standards and responsibilities for managing an organisation’s information assets. It covers all information in all formats (manual & electronic).
INFORMThe Confidentiality Model
Procedures to ensure that all staff, contractors and volunteers are fully aware of responsibilities regarding confidentiality
Recording an individuals information accurately and consistently
Keeping information physically secure
Disclosing and using information with appropriate careAn individuals information
Check (where practicable) that leaflets or other guidance on confidentiality has been understood
Make clear to individuals when information is recorded or service records accessed
Make clear to service users when information may be disclosed to others
InformService Users EffectivelyNo Surprises!
Check that individuals have no concerns about how their information is disclosed and used
Answer any queries personally or direct to those who can answer
Respect the rights of individuals and help them exercise their right to access their service record
Service Users EffectivelyNo Surprises!
Ask the individual before using personal information in ways that do not contribute directly to, or support, the purpose
Respect the individuals decisions to restrict disclosure or use of information, except in exceptional circumstances
Communicate effectively with service users to ensure they understand the implications of non-disclosure
Provide ChoiceProvide Choice
Be aware of the issues surrounding confidentiality and seek training or support where uncertain in order to deal with them appropriately
Report possible breaches or risk of breaches
In August 2007 Baby Peter died of horrific injuries inflicted by his carers
He had suffered over 50 injuries despite receiving 60 visits from social workers, doctors and the police over an 8 month period
Laming enquiry criticised failings in information sharing between agencies, the poor training and support given to “over-stretched” front-line staff and the red tape “hampering” social workersDeath of Baby Peter
National information sharing guidance produced by Children’s Services including information sharing pocket guide and dvd
Every Child Matters reforms 2004 – 2008 new guidance was issued to reflect current policy for practitioners working with both adults and children’s services
Information Sharing Protocols
Social Care Record Guarantee, NHS Care Record Guarantee
National Information Governance Board (NIGB)
Recognise that a difference of culture may exist with the agencies you wish to share information with and work to removing barriers where there is a legitimate legal reason for sharing.What Guidance is Available
Where possible we should respect the wishes of individuals who do not consent to share confidential information. You may still share information, if in your judgement on the facts of the case, there is sufficient need to override the lack of consent
Seek advice when in doubt, especially where your doubt relates to a concern about possible significant harm to a child, vulnerable adult or serious harm to others
You should ensure that the information you share is:
Accurate and up-to-date (historical information maybe relevant too)
Necessary for the purpose for which you are sharing it
Shared only with those people who need to see it
Always record the reasons for your decisions – whether it is to share information or notWhat does this mean?
In Health consent can be implied or explicit, in Social Care it is always explicit but for both it needs to be
Understood - The service user needs to have capacity to understand
Freely givenValid Consent
Consent not expressly given: it is always explicit but for both it needs to be
Often consent is assumed for sharing information with colleagues within the organisation, particularly in Health.
i.e. a individual sees a nurse for a test, it is assumed that the individual will consent for the results to be shared with the treating doctor.
In Social Care sharing with other departments in the Local Authority would require explicit consent for another purpose.
i.e. to share with housing
Sharing information between health care colleagues in different organisations e.g. ambulance crews to A & E staff.Implied Consent
Agreement to sharing should be recorded it is always explicit but for both it needs to be the individual should be made aware of: -
What information is to be shared
What is the purpose of sharing it
Who it is to be shared with
How the information will be protected
Whether it may be further shared
That they have the right to refuse (if they do)
The consequences of refusal and agreement to consentExplicit or Informed Consent
Consent should be sought at the earliest opportunity it is always explicit but for both it needs to be
Consent should be recorded using the relevant Consent or Permission to Share form and signed by both the social work professional and the individual or their representative. In Heath this should be recorded in the individual notes
Clear explanation should be given to the individual on what they are consenting to and for how long
It should be made clear that consent can be withdrawn at any time but we will share when there is a legal requirement to do so
An individual should understand that if they withdraw their consent this may affect the service we can provide to them
Revisiting consent – at least annually or when a new event happensHow do we obtain consent
Children and young people it is always explicit but for both it needs to be
16 assumed to be competent
Under 16 competent if they have the capacity to understand and take own decisions
Otherwise consent from whoever has parental responsibility
Changes at 16 onus of proof shifts from being on the child to being on the person wanting to assert lack of capacity.Children and competence to Consent
Adult unable to give consent? it is always explicit but for both it needs to be
Take into account the views of relatives or carer’s
Respect any previously expressed wishes
Mental Capacity Act (MCA)
Adults lacking capacity may have an advocate
Provision under MCA for proxy consent via LPA or Court appointed deputy
Ultimately, the professional must act in the individual’s best interests
Record the decision and the reasons for itAdult Capacity to Consent
Ensure the child/adult has the necessary capacity to understand what they are consenting to and seek advice if unsure
Record what information will be shared and with whom (always record reasons for sharing without consent)
It is the individuals choice to refuse consent, alter arrangements or withdraw consent at a later stage
Explain what the consequences are of withdrawing consent and where it may be shared anyway
Need only one parent, with parental responsibility, to give consent - ‘Fraser’ (judgement Gillick) competent’ children under 16 also have rights of confidentialityConsent - Summary
Remember – the consequences of NOT sharing information with other agencies could be far worse than inappropriate sharing
There are some circumstances in which sharing confidential information without consent will normally be justified in the public interest:
When there is evidence that the child/vulnerable adult is suffering or is at risk of suffering harm; or
Where there is reasonable cause to believe that a child may be suffering or at risk of significant harm; or
To prevent significant harm arising to children/vulnerable adult including through the prevention, detection and prosecution of serious crimeConsent
Consider Public Interest justification before seeking consent which could affect approach to consent.
I.e. need to provide the information but would prefer to disclose with their agreement. Give an opportunity for them to state their case for non-disclosure.
May not be appropriate if there is risk to staff or others.So what if they say no
Explain consequences of agreeing to consent consent which could affect approach to consent.
Explain consequences of refusing consent i.e. limiting Services – housing etc.Understanding Consequences
If the individual is competent to make the decision and they fully understand the consequences of the decision for care or treatment:
Understand their reasons and see if they can be satisfied
Can care be provided in different way? (Must be practical)
Balance the risks – consider ‘public interest’ – you may need to share anyway…
Harm to self
Harm or risk to othersSo, what if they say No?
What if they say “Yes”…
and then change their mind!
Q: fully understand the consequences of the decision for care or treatment: Can I still disclose if they don’t consent?QUESTIONS TO ASK BEFORE SHARING INFORMATION
“There must never be another tragic case where a child suffers as a result of professionals not sharing what they know.”
“…in every judgment they make, staff have to balance the right of a parent with that of the protection of the child.”
The Victoria Climbié Inquiry
Q: fully understand the consequences of the decision for care or treatment: Can I still disclose if they don’t consent?
Failure to share information appropriately can be a serious breach of care
Sharing without consent may be necessary and appropriate under some circumstances:
When a child is believed to be at serious risk of harm
When there is evidence of serious public harm or risk to others or and individual
For the prevention, detection or prosecution of serious crime
When instructed to do so by a courtQUESTIONS TO ASK BEFORE SHARING INFORMATION
The proposed disclosure should be proportionate to the need to protect the child’s/vulnerable adult’s welfare
The amount of information disclosed and the number of people to whom it is disclosed should be no more than is necessary to meet the public interest in protecting the health and wellbeing of the child/vulnerable adultProportionality
Consult a Manager/Caldicott Guardian or Data Protection/Information Governance Officer
Obtain advice from legal services if appropriate
Record reasons why a decision was made to:
Override the requirement to seek consent
Share information without consentWhen in Doubt
What are the reasons for sharing? Protection/Information Governance Officer
Is there sufficient ‘need to know’?
Is the request proportionate?
Is the information up to date/accurate?
Will there be secondary disclosure?
Do I need consent?
Have I got consent?
Can I still disclose if they don’t consent – is there another justification?
Have I recorded the sharing?
Am I sharing securely?Questions To Ask Before Sharing Information…with anyone, about anyone
The NHS NPfIT Programme National Records Protection/Information Governance Officer
Electronic Common Assessment systems
Use of NHS mail to share information for multi-agency teamsNew Technology
Whose record is it if more than one individual contributes to the record –
multi agency teams
How will we handle
pre adoption information electronically
Subject Access Rights
Third Party information
Mother’s information in Children’s records
Seriously harmful data
Case recordingImpact of Technology on Data Protection
More professional to the record –
Meet the Data Protection requirements
Mental Capacity Act 2005
Freedom of Information 2000
Share a common language
Recording Consent – Reasons and Fact
Keeping SecureRecords Management
Facts and opinions to the record –
Undiagnosed mental illness?
Appeared to be unwashed and dishevelled
Error correction, or if the individual disagrees (Guidance)Recording
So everyone knows the rules and has clear guidance on how, where, when and with whom.
Protects the subject, the staff and the organisation
Is not instead of consentWhy do we Need an Information Sharing Protocol ?
What data do we want to share? where, when and with whom.
With whom do we want to share it?
Why do we want to share it?
How can we justify sharing it?
How do we comply with the law?Information Sharing Protocols
Principles we will all work to contained in the high level protocol
Purpose for Sharing Information e.g Care of Adults
Process of how we will share the information in the Service Level Information Sharing protocol
How we comply with the Law where, when and with whom.
Why we need to share the information
How we justify sharing the information
What information we want to share
With whom we will share the information
How we will protect the informationThe Protocol should describe
How we restrict access to the information -consent where, when and with whom.
Who needs to know, how much
What security will protect it
How long it will be kept for
What format will it be in
When it can be destroyed or Archived
Subject Access rights
Hiding behind legislation and red tape!!!How We Comply With The Law
To enable early intervention to help children and vulnerable adults to achieve positive outcomes
To enable professionals to feel confident in making good effective information sharing decisions
To prevent death or serious harm being caused to vulnerable children and adults as a result of failing to:
understand the significance of the information shared
take appropriate action in relation to known or suspected
abuse or neglectWhy we need to share information
A more informed understanding about why information should be shared, when and with whom.
Clarification of the legal and ethical issues that surround information sharing.
A toolkit to support information sharingBreakout Objectives
Increased awareness of partner agencies and their responsibilities and concerns in relation to information sharing.
Strategies for disseminating these ideas to others in your organisations.
Impact of new technology on information sharing.Breakout Objectives
Clarification on safe, legal and confidential ways to send information via computer
To get a more informed understanding about sharing information
To link/network with other delegates with the same remit as myself
To widen my knowledge of the subject area
To explore issues/dilemmas/barriers with other professionalsDelegate Objective
Raising the issues – information via computer
What Will Happen if we Do Share Information?
What Could Happen if we Don’t Share Information?Group Work One
Choose 1 of the 3 scenarios on the table information via computer
As instructed by your facilitator each person takes a card
Beginning with the oldest date each person decides who they would or would not share the information with, they then read the card to the group
Debate in your groups whether or not having all of the information would change any decisions made
You have 30 minutes to complete this exerciseInstructions
Deciding What to Share information via computer
- Would We?
- Could We?
- Should We?Group Work Two
Discuss and decide if you would share the information
Discuss and decide if you could share the information
Discuss and decide if you should share the information
(You have 30 minutes to complete this exercise)Instructions
Each group chooses one question to ask the panel of experts arising out of the discussions
Complete the evaluation formFeedback from Tables and any questions