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Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising. Chapter Objectives. After reading this chapter you should be able to : Describe the role of endorsers in advertising . Explain the requirements for an effective endorser.

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chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives

After reading this chapter you should be able to:

  • Describe the role of endorsers in advertising.
  • Explain the requirements for an effective endorser.
  • Appreciate the factors that enter into the endorser-selection decision.
  • Discuss the role of Q-Scores in selecting celebrity endorsers.
  • Describe the role of humor in advertising.
  • Explain the logic underlying the use of appeals to fear in advertising.
chapter objectives cont d
Chapter Objectives (cont’d)
  • Understand the nature of appeals to guilt in advertising.
  • Discuss the role of sex appeals, including the downside of such usage.
  • Explain the meaning of subliminal messages and symbolic embeds.
  • Appreciate the role of music in advertising.
  • Understand the function of comparative advertising and the considerations that influence the use of this form of advertising.
The Role of Endorsers in Advertising: Despite Troubles, Tiger Continues to be Near the Top of Endorser Income
celebrity endorsers
Celebrity Endorsers

Examples of top celebrity endorsers today?

Advertisers are willing to pay large salaries to celebrities who are liked and respected by target audiences and who will favorably influence consumers’ attitudes and behavior toward the endorsed products

Any problems with the use of celebrity endorsers?

the role of q rating q scores
The Role of Q-Rating (Q-Scores)


Q = (popularity/familiarity) x 100

number of people who describe the source

Q = as “one of their favorites” x 100

number of people who know of the source

typical person endorsements
Typical-Person Endorsements
  • Show regular people using or endorsing products
  • Avoid the backlash from using “beautiful people” who may be resented
  • Real personal experience of the benefits of the particular brand grants a degree of credibility
  • It is more effective to use multiple people rather than a single individual
practical considerations in the selection of endorsers
Practical Considerations in the Selection of Endorsers
  • Celebrity and Audience Match-up
  • Celebrity and Brand Match-up
  • Celebrity Credibility
  • Celebrity Attractiveness
  • Cost Considerations
  • Working Ease and Difficulty Factor
  • Saturation Factor
  • Trouble Factor
success factors for athlete endorsers
“Success Factors for Athlete Endorsers”
  • Attention getters
  • Basketball, tennis, golf athletes are easier
  • Large market exposure needed
  • Good rapport with media
  • Charisma, honesty
  • Someone who is known by everyone – not just in sports
the role of humor in advertising positive effects
The Role of Humor in Advertising: Positive Effects

(“?” below = debate on effects)

  • Attracts attention
  • Enhances liking of ad and brand
  • Does not hurt comprehension (?)
  • Does not harm persuasion (?)
  • Does not harm source credibility (?)
  • Nature of product affects the appropriateness of using humor (e.g., feeling-oriented; under low involvement)
the role of humor in advertising negative effects
The Role of Humor in Advertising:Negative Effects
  • Effective only when consumers’ evaluations of the advertised brand are already positive
  • Effect of humor can differ due to differences in audience and geographical characteristics
  • Humorous message may be so distracting that receivers ignore the message content
appeals to consumer fears
Appeals to Consumer Fears
  • Use of fear: physical or impending problems
  • Appeals to fear can be effective as a means of enhancing motivation (yet ethical issues)
  • Can identify the negative consequences of:
    • Not using the product
    • Engaging in unsafe behavior (drinking and driving)
  • Can take the forms of either
    • social disapproval or physical danger
appeals to consumer fears1

Appropriate Intensityof Threat Level

Consumers’ Motivation to Avoid Negative Consequences

Scarcity:Psychological Reactance(Fear of losing out)

Social Disapproval(Not using the advertised brand)

Physical Danger(Engaging in unsafe behavior)

Stimulate audience involvement with a message

Promoteacceptance ofmessage arguments

Fear-Appeal Logic

Appeals to Consumer Fears
inverted u hypothesis appropriate fear intensity
Inverted-U Hypothesis: Appropriate Fear Intensity

(Note: this is an incomplete explanation)

Degree of






Level of Fear Intensity

parallel response model leventhal 1970
Parallel Response Model(Leventhal 1970)

Fear appeal with solution  danger cues  danger control  adaptive action

(e.g., change behavior)

Fear appeal without solution  fear cues  fear control  emotional response (e.g., anxiety)

What two factors are needed for fear appeals to be effective?

for fear appeals to be effective
For Fear Appeals to be effective…
  • Appropriate level of threat given the involvement of the target market
  • Need a prominent solution (e.g., your brand or service) for the fear created
the functions of music in advertising
The Functions of Music in Advertising
  • Functions of Music in Advertising:
    • Attracts attention
    • Promotes positive mood
    • Increase receptivity of message
    • Communicates meanings
  • Classical conditioning and tempo research on music
distraction from message content
Distraction from Message Content
  • Attractive sources, background scenery, colors, music
  • Arguments in favor of distraction: Reduces counterarguments, positive emotions, conditioning
  • Arguments against distraction: Why intentionally try to distract when there are thousands of other distractions in processing of ads?
the use of sex appeals in advertising
The Use of Sex Appeals in Advertising
  • Elicits attention
  • Enhances recall?
  • Positive affect?
  • Cultural issues
subliminal messages and symbolic embeds
Subliminal Messages andSymbolic Embeds


Refers to the presentation of stimuli at a rate or level that is below the conscious threshold of awareness

a cautious challenge
A Cautious Challenge
  • Three forms of subliminal stimulation:
    • Visual stimulation using a tachistoscope
    • Accelerated speech in auditory messages
    • Embedding of hidden symbols
  • Any evidence of support?
    • Subliminal perception
    • Link between subliminal advertising and behavior?
    • See Timothy Moore (Journal of Marketing 1982), “Subliminal Advertising: What You See is What You Get”
message sidedness generalizations
Message Sidedness: Generalizations

Use a 2-sided message if ...

  • The audience does not already agree with the topic (brand, ad message)
  • Counterarguments are anticipated
  • The audience uses the competitor’s brand
  • The audience is better educated
considerations in the use of comparative advertising
Considerations in the Use of Comparative Advertising
  • Use if the audience does not have a prior preference for the comparative brand
  • Use with low involvement purchases (weak evidence)
  • Use with new brands that possess distinct advantages over competition
  • Use if claims are credible (test results, spokespersons, 2-sided claims)
  • Use if sales are static and non-comparative ads ineffective (weak evidence)
  • Use in print (versus broadcast) media
  • Relative framing of questions on comparative ad effects is important
presentation order
Presentation Order

OrderWhere Claims PresentedWhen to Use

1. Anticlimax beginning low involvement

2. Pyramidal middle never

3. Climax end high involvement

Is this more important for audio or visual print ad information?

when the audience s hould b e a ble to draw t heir o wn conclusions
When the Audience Should Be Able to Draw Their Own Conclusions
  • When they feel they are being manipulated or their intelligence is being insulted
  • Under high personal (ego) involvement