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Chemistry Atomic Theory. Matter & Its Classification Do Now – What is an atom? CALCULATORS NOT NEEDED. Chemistry – Back to Basics. In chemistry , we study matter and the changes it undergoes. Matter. We define matter as anything that has mass and takes up space. Matter.

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chemistry atomic theory

ChemistryAtomic Theory

Matter & Its Classification

Do Now – What is an atom?

CALCULATORS NOT NEEDED

chemistry back to basics
Chemistry – Back to Basics
  • In chemistry, we study matter and the changes it undergoes.
matter
Matter
  • We define matter as anything that has mass and takes up space.
matter1
Matter
  • Atoms are the building blocks of matter.
    • The smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of that element.
  • Each element is made of the same kind of atom.
  • A compound is made of two or more different kinds of elements.
states of matter
States of Matter
  • Solids have definite volume and definite shape.
  • Liquids have definite volume and indefinite shape.
  • Gases have indefinite volume and indefinite shape.
  • Plasmas are superheated and lose most of their electrons (fluorescent lights)
properties changes in matter
Properties & Changes in Matter
  • Physical properties can be observed without changing a substance into another substance.
  • Chemical properties can only be observed when a substance is changed into another substance.
properties changes in matter1
Properties & Changes in Matter
  • Intensive properties are independent of the amount of substance present.
  • Extensive properties depend on the amount of substance present.

The ability to eat a giant hamburger depends on the amount of ketchup present.

properties changes in matter2
Properties & Changes in Matter
  • Physical changes are changes in matter that do not change the composition of a substance.
  • Chemical changes result in new substances.
physical or chemical change
Physical or Chemical Change?
  • Tearing a sheet of paper
  • Melting a piece of wax
  • Burning a log
classifying matter
Classifying Matter
  • A pure substance is a single component with unique chemical properties.
    • Ex. Ethanol, water, any element or compound
  • A mixture is a blend of two or more components.
pure substances
Pure Substances
  • Atoms are the building blocks of matter.
  • Each element is made of the same kind of atom.
    • The periodic table lists all of the known elements.
    • You need to recognize the name/symbol of the 40 most common elements!
pure substances1
Pure Substances
  • A compound is made of two or more different kinds of elements.
    • H2O (water) – 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen
    • NH3 (ammonia) – nitrogen and 3 hydrogen atoms
    • C12H22O11 – 12 carbon, 22 hydrogen, 11 oxygen atoms
    • Ca(NO3)2 – 1 calcium, 2 nitrogen, 6 oxygen atoms
pure substances2
Pure Substances

Sodium (Na) + chlorine (Cl2)  sodium chloride (NaCl)

ELEMENT + ELEMENT  COMPOUND

mixtures
Mixtures
  • A mixture can be classified as homogenous or heterogenous.
mixtures1
Mixtures
  • Homogenous mixtures (solutions) – can not tell components from each other.
    • Examples: broth, plain yogurt, salt water
  • Heterogenous mixtures – can tell components apart
    • Examples: salad, italian salad dressing, oil & vinegar
separating mixtures
Separating Mixtures
  • Distillation uses differences in boiling points to boil and recondense liquids from each other.
separating mixtures1
Separating Mixtures
  • Crystallization, or evaporation, removes a liquid in which a solid has dissolved by boiling away the liquid, leaving the solid behind (usually in pretty crystals).
separating mixtures2
Separating Mixtures
  • In filtration, solid substances are separated from liquids and solutions.
separating mixtures3
Separating Mixtures
  • Chromatography separates substances on the basis of differences in solubility, or ability to dissolve.
separating mixtures4
Separating Mixtures
  • A separationfunnel is used when there are two phases (layers) in a liquid mixture
    • Oil & vinegar make two phases.
separating mixtures5
Separating Mixtures
  • Magnets can also separate mixtures, if one component is magnetic (ex: iron) and the others are not.