THE “GOSPELS” • Mark—60 A.D.—Jesus, the Suffering King • Matthew—80 A.D.—Jesus, the Long-Expected Jewish Messiah • Luke-Acts—80 A.D.—Jesus, the Savior of ALL the world and friend to outcasts • John—90 A.D.—Jesus, the pre-existent Son of God
THE GOSPELOF MARK Jesus, the Suffering King
SOURCES OF MARK’S GOSPELDATE, AUTHORSHIP, SETTING • SOURCES: Preaching of Peter and the Passion Story • DATE: Early 60’s, following Peter’s death in Rome • AUTHOR: John Mark, cousin of Barnabas, one time companion of Paul and Barnabas, but named as the spiritual child of Peter (1 Peter 5:13) • SETTING: From Rome – to Gentile Christians (presumably in Rome during early days of persecution)
MARK’S TWO PRIMARY CONCERNS • CHRISTOLOGY – Who is Jesus? • Answer given in 1:1, 8:29; 15:39 • But what does it mean to confess that Jesus is the Christ? • DISCIPLESHIP – What does it mean to follow Jesus? • Discipleship sayings • Cross, servanthood, suffering, pouring out life for others
OUTLINE OF MARK’S GOSPEL • PROLOGUE – The Gospel of Jesus Christ (1:1-15) • THE AUTHORITY AND POWER OF JESUS CHRIST (1:16-8:21) • THE NATURE OF TRUE MESSIAHSHIP AND DISCIPLESHIP (8:22-10:52) • THE PASSION OF JESUS CHRIST (11:1-15:39) • THE RESURRECTION OF JESUS CHRIST, THE SON OF GOD (15:40-16:8)
THE PARABLE OF THE SOWERRESPONSES TO JESUS—the parable of sower, seed, and soils • HARD GROUND—never even gets into the ground • THORNY GROUND—thorns grow up and choke out the seed • ROCKY GROUND—grows quickly—but doesn’t have deep roots, so it withers • GOOD GROUND—produces fruit
FOCUS IS NOW ON THE “ROCKY GROUND” Primary Problem: FEAR!
THE JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM—chapters 8-10 • Jesus talks about going to Jerusalem, suffering, dying, and rising again • Disciples reflect a complete misunderstanding of Jesus as Messiah • Jesus attempts to correct their misunderstanding – THE NATURE OF MESSIAHSHIP AND DISCIPLESHIP
TYPICAL “CORONATION” OF ANCIENT KINGS • Enter into capital city in militant manner on triumphant horse • Anointed king by high priest in the temple • Share a meal with those with whom the king will rule • Crown—scepter—robe • “Lifted up” onto throne—often with acclamation by people and royal titles given • Intimate moment of “adoption” by God: “Today you have become my son, and I have become your father”
Central Themes of Mark’s Gospel • Jesus is the Son of God, whose life and ministry are marked by divine power and authority. • Life’s most important question is one asked by Jesus: “Who do you say that I am?” • Religious leaders, the crowds, and even his own disciples do not fully comprehend who Jesus is. A full understanding of Messiahship requires the revelationencounter of the cross. • The way of Jesus is the way of the cross: humble service, sacrificial love, pouring out life for others.
THE GOSPELOF MATTHEW Jesus, the Long-Expected Jewish Messiah
SOURCES OF MATTHEW’S GOSPELDATE, AUTHORSHIP, SETTING • SOURCES: Mark, “Q”, and “M” • DATE: 70-80, following destruction of the Temple • AUTHOR: Levi, the tax collector – a Jewish male, steeped in Hebrew Scriptures, accomplished Greek writer who thought like a scribe (Mt 13:52) • SETTING: Jewish Christians, urban, cosmopolitan, and prosperous, favorable view of Gentile mission – Antioch in Syria is the most likely location
OUTLINE OF MATTHEW’S GOSPEL • PROLOGUE – The Birth of the Messiah(1:1-2:23) • PART 1 (3:1-7:29) Narrative (3-4) Discourse (5-7) • PART 2 (8:1-11:1) Narrative (8-9:35) Discourse (9:35-11:1) • PART 3 (11:2-13:53) Narrative (11-12) Discourse (13:1-53) • PART 4 (13:54-19:1) Narrative (13-17) Discourse (18-19:1) • PART 5 (19:2-26:2) Narrative (19-22) Discourse (23-26:2) • FINALE: THE PASSION, RESURRECTION, AND GREAT COMMISSION OF MESSIAH (26-28)
MATTHEW—Long-expected Jewish Messiah • Genealogy • Stories connected to familiar OT stories • Often repeated phrase: “This was to fulfill the prophet…” • Divided into five sections
MATTHEW—Long-expected Jewish Messiah • Star appears in the sky • King Herod becomes frightened that a king has been born • Magi (priests of the world religion—Zoroastrianism—come to worship him)
THE SERMON ON THE MOUNTMATTHEW 5-7 • Beatitudes – Blessings of upside down kingdom • A new teaching – with authority: You have heard that it was said… but I say unto you… • A NEW RIGHTEOUSNESS • True prayer and piety… Kingdom First • The way of righteousness – the wise and foolish builders
Central Themes of Matthew’s Gospel • Jesus is the promised Messiah, the one to whom the Old Testament points. • The promised kingdom has already dawned in the life and ministry of Jesus, the Messiah. • The true people of God are those who have aligned themselves to Jesus’ teaching as his disciples. • God has revealed the new way of righteousness in Jesus as the fulfillment of Old Testament law. • The reign of Jesus is coming in its fullness; therefore the church is to take the gospel to the world.
THE GOSPELOF LUKE Jesus, the Savior of All and Friend of Outcasts
SOURCES OF LUKE’S GOSPELDATE, AUTHORSHIP, SETTING • SOURCES: Mark, “Q”, and “L” • DATE: 70-80, following destruction of the Temple • AUTHOR: Luke, a physician, traveling companion of Paul, early proselyte to Judaism – also penned Acts of the Apostles as second part of a two volume work • SETTING: Gentile audience, Theophilus (Greek: Friend of God), probably written from Rome following Paul’s imprisonment – to churches of Greece & Asia Minor
OUTLINE OF LUKE’S GOSPEL • PROLOGUE – Audience and Purpose(1:1-4) • INFANCY NARRATIVES (1:5-2:52) • JESUS IN GALILEE (3:1-9:50) • THE JOURNEY NARRATIVE (9:51-19:27) • First to second mention of Jerusalem (9:51-13:21) • Second to third mention of Jerusalem (13:22-17:10) • Last stage of journey to arrival in Jerusalem (17:11-19:27) • JESUS IN JERUSALEM (19:28-23:56) • THE RESURRECTION NARRATIVES (24:1-53)
LUKE— Jesus: The Savior of All and Friend of Outcasts • Infancy Narratives • Genealogy (back to Adam) • Inaugural Sermon • Five Sinners (Levi, The Sinful Woman, The Prodigal Son, The Pharisee & The Publican, and Zaccheus) • Favorite Parables • The Road to Emmaus
LUKE— Jesus: The Savior of All and Friend of Outcasts • SPECIAL EMPHASES • Repentance • Inclusion of women • Priority of Prayer • Discipleship as Journey • Joy and Praise • Concern for the poor • Money matters • Table fellowship • Salvation is for everyone
Central Themes of Luke’s Gospel • Christology – Jesus is the Spirit-empowered Servant of the Lord, The Prophet like Moses, and the Righteous Martyr (Witness). • Ecclesiology – The church is the covenantpeople of God, the fulfillment of Israel as God’s light to the nations – an alternativecommunity of praise, joy, and obedience. Tablefellowship is the sign of inclusion in this covenant community – and it is extended to all. • Eschatology – Jesus will come again, but until then the church is God’s Spirit-empoweredwitness to the world. • Soteriology – the good news of salvation is for all – the weak, the outcast, male and female, Gentiles… all
THE GOSPELOF JOHN Jesus, the Pre-existent Word of God
SOURCES OF JOHN’S GOSPELDATE, AUTHORSHIP, SETTING • SOURCES: Eyewitness accounts – independent, not written chronologically, but theologically structured • DATE: 90 AD, tension between Christians and Jews • AUTHOR: John, one of the sons of Zebedee, part of Jesus’ inner circle (Peter, James, and John), the beloved disciple, an intimate eyewitness of Jesus • SETTING: could be written to Jews – to convince them that Jesus is the Christ, but more likely to deepen Christians in their faith (perhaps the churches of Asia Minor who were facing persecution and expulsion from the synagogue) – The Question of Identity
OUTLINE OF JOHN’S GOSPEL • PROLOGUE – The Word (Logos) Became Flesh (1:1-18) • PART 1: The Book of Signs (1:19-12:50) • Come and See (1:19-51) • The Cana Signs (2-4) • OT Feasts and Their Replacements (5-10) • Sabbath (5) Passover (6) Tabernacles (7-10), Dedication (10) • The Raising of Lazarus (11-12:19) • The Greeks Come to Jesus (12:20-50) • PART 2: The Book of Glory (13:1-20:31) • Epilogue (21:1-25)
JOHN— Jesus: The Pre-ExistentWord of God • The Word Became Flesh THE BOOK OF SIGNS • Cana Signs • Water into Wine • Nicodemus • Woman at the Well • “I AM” Sayings • Raising Lazarus • The Greeks Seek Jesus
JOHN— Jesus: The Pre-ExistentWord of God THE BOOK OF GLORY “Glory” = Jesus’ death on the cross, he is “lifted up” • Last Supper – towel/basin • Farewell Discourse (14-17) • “Paraclete” Sayings • Vine and Branches • High Priestly Prayer • Passion and Death (18-19) • Resurrection (20)
JOHN— Jesus: The Pre-ExistentWord of God • SPECIAL WORDS • Know • Father (for God) • Testify (witness) • Glory (glorify) • Believe (faith) • World • Life • Son • Truth • Light • Spirit
Central Themes of John’s Gospel • Christology – Jesus is the EternalSon of God (the Word) made flesh… Jesus’ intimaterelationship with the Father is revealed in this Gospel. He has “exegeted” God for us! • Ecclesiology – The church is the community gathered around Jesus, marked by love (as He has loved us). This love is best signaled in the “towel and basin” service that Jesus offers to his disciples as our example to follow. • Eschatology – The coming of Christ into the world has created a “crisis” – a time for decision - believe. We now live “between the times,” empowered by the Paraclete. • Soteriology – Salvation is an experientialencounter with the living Christ – who invites all people to believe.