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Web programming. Cristian Estan – guest lecture in CS640 November 13 2007. The web as a platform for applications. Structure of program Read input Perform computation Produce output The program may use libraries written by others. Structure of program Wait for events

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web programming

Web programming

Cristian Estan – guest lecture in CS640

November 13 2007

most programs are event oriented
Structure of program

Read input

Perform computation

Produce output

The program may use libraries written by others

Structure of program

Wait for events

Find appropriate method for handling the event

Handle the event

Repeat

Often you just add new events and handlers to an existing program

Most programs are event-oriented

A naïve view

A realistic view

overview
Overview
  • Web documents
  • Server-side programming
  • Client-side programming
  • Web services
h yper t ext m arkup l anguage
HyperText Markup Language
  • Disagreement about HTML’s role
    • Only give the content and structure of the document, leave visualization to the browser
      • Browsers vary (graphical, text based, mobile devices)
      • User preferences vary (some people like larger fonts)
      • Environment varies (screen sizes, fonts available, etc.)
    • But authors want to control what the document looks like
  • Trend towards separating content from presentation
    • Cascading Style Sheets – presentation information only
    • HTML documents contain little formatting
current state of the standards
Current state of the standards
  • In the 90s browser wars (IE vs. Netscape) were driving the evolution of HTML
    • Non-standard extensions used by pages lead to lock-in
  • W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) sets standards
  • Last HTML standard 4.01 (December 1999)
  • XHTML 1.0 new XML-based format
    • XML (extensible markup language) – focuses on semantics and is used as general purpose format for structured data
    • A document called DTD or XML Schema defines what tags and attributes are allowed in an XML document
slide7

<TITLE>Bucky Badger’s web page</TITLE>

<BODY>

<H1>Welcome to Bucky's web page</H1>

<IMG SRC="bucky.gif">

<P>I am Bucky, the mascot for University of Wisconsin athletics. Please visit

<A HREF="http://www.uwbadgers.com/football/index.html"> the web page of our football team</A>

and <A HREF="http://www.uwbadgers.com/basketball/index.html"> the web page of our basketball team</A>.

</BODY>

a valid web page
A valid web page

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">

<html>

<head>

<title>Bucky Badger’s web page</title>

</head>

<body>

<h1>Welcome to Bucky's web page</h1><!-- Users don’t see this comment. -->

<img src="bucky.gif" alt="A picture of Bucky" />

<p>I am Bucky, the mascot for University of Wisconsin athletics. Please visit

<a href="http://www.uwbadgers.com/football/index.html"> the web page of our football team</a> and

<a href="http://www.uwbadgers.com/basketball/index.html"> the web page of our basketball team</a>.</p>

</body>

</html>

about forms
About forms
  • Forms are the traditional way for users to send information to a web server
    • The user fills out fields in the browser
    • The user submits the form
    • http carries the user input to the web server
    • A server side program processes the user data
    • The server sends a reply document to the client
slide10

<h3>Search form</h3>

<form method="get“

action="http://www.googlesyndicatedsearch.com/u/univwisc">

<p>What are you looking for?

<input type="text" name="q" id="searchText" value="Your search terms..." />

<input type="hidden" name="hl" value="en" />

<input type="hidden" name="ie" value="ISO-8859-1" />

<input type="submit" id="searchButton" value="Search UW-Madison" />

</p></form>

overview1
Overview
  • Web documents
  • Server-side programming
  • Client-side programming
  • Web services
server side programming
Server side programming
  • Short history
    • CGI – separate programs launched by web server
      • They produce an HTML document as output
      • They receive arguments as input
      • Strong isolation, bad performance
    • Programs embedded inside web page (php, ASP, JSP)
      • Program executed inside web server process
    • Separate “code-behind” file for the code (ASP.NET)
  • What are dynamic pages used for?
    • Personalizing based on user identity
    • Interacting with databases (e.g. on-line banking)
    • Web applications (e.g. web based email)
  • Separate database keeps persistent data
lifecycle of static web page

HTTP request

Request

URL

HTML file

HTTP response

“Lifecycle” of static web page

Web server machine

File

system

Server data

Server code

Web

client

lifecycle of asp net webpage

HTTP request

Request

URL

.aspx file

codebehind

HTTP response

Lifecycle of ASP.NET webpage

Web server machine

File

system

Server data

Server code

Web

client

HTML snippets

Objects representing this web page

page with database interaction

HTTP request

Request

URL

.aspx file

codebehind

HTTP response

SQL interaction

Page with database interaction

Web server machine

File

system

Server data

Server code

Web

client

HTML snippets

Database

Objects representing this web page

trivial aspx file
Trivial ASPX File

<%@ Page Language="C#" AutoEventWireup="true" CodeFile="Stub.aspx.cs" Inherits="Stub" %>

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" >

<head runat="server">

<title>Untitled Page</title>

</head>

<body>

<form id="form1" runat="server">

<div>

<asp:Label ID="lblTime" runat="server" />

</div>

</form>

</body>

</html>

trivial code behind file
Trivial Code Behind File

using System;

using System.Data;

using System.Configuration;

using System.Collections;

using System.Web;

using System.Web.Security;

using System.Web.UI;

using System.Web.UI.WebControls;

using System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts;

using System.Web.UI.HtmlControls;

public partial class Stub : System.Web.UI.Page

{

protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)

{

lblTime.Text = DateTime.Now.ToLongTimeString();

}

}

output from trivial page
Output from Trivial Page

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" >

<head><title>

Untitled Page

</title></head>

<body>

<form name="form1" method="post" action="Stub.aspx" id="form1">

<div>

<input type="hidden" name="__VIEWSTATE" id="__VIEWSTATE" value="/stuff" />

</div>

<div>

<span id="lblTime">2:52:13 PM</span>

</div>

</form>

</body>

</html>

overview2
Overview
  • Web documents
  • Server-side programming
  • Client-side programming
  • Web services
why is javascript important
Why is JavaScript important?
  • Web pages can contain JavaScript programs executed inside the browser
    • Supported by all major browsers
      • Microsoft’s version called Jscript (the language is the same)
    • User may disable JavaScript due to security fears
      • This is default for some newer versions of Internet Explorer
  • Client-side programming important for web because
    • Can promptly validate user input
    • Can update the web page without postback to server
    • Allows page to react to user actions other than pushing a “submit” button – more interactivity
what is javascript
What is JavaScript?
  • Interpreted, object-oriented programming language with dynamic typing
    • Introduced by Netscape with Netscape 2.0 in 1995
    • Standardized as ECMAScript by ECMA (European Computer Manufacturers Association)
    • Not related to Java other than the name
  • Tightly integrated with browser
    • Can handle many types of events generated by the normal interaction between user and browser
    • Can modify the internal objects based on which the browser renders the web page
slide22

<head>

<title>JavaScript Hello world!</title>

</head>

<body>

<script>

document.write("Hello world!");

</script>

</body>

adding javascript to a page
Adding JavaScript to a page
  • Using the <script> </script> tag
    • Text between tags is JavaScript program
    • Can specify external file using src attribute
    • Executed as the document is loading
  • Value of an attribute such as onclick
    • This type of code is called event handler
    • Executed when event happens
    • Can define event handlers for almost any HTML element in page
d ocument o bject m odel
Document Object Model
  • Describes how the document object from JavaScript can be traversed and modified
    • Represented as tree structure
    • Can add new elements to the page
    • Can change attributes of existing elements
  • DOM has levels 0-3 and many sub-standards
  • The DOM interface used in other contexts with other languages (C++, Java, python, etc.)
the document as a tree
The document as a tree

<html>

<head>

<title>A Document</title>

</head>

<body>

<h1>A web page</h1>

<p>A <i>simple</i> paragraph</p>

</body>

</html>

document

<html>

<head>

<body>

<title>

<h1>

“A document”

“A web page”

<p>

“A ”

<i>

“ paragraph”

“simple”

overview3
Overview
  • Web documents
  • Server-side programming
  • Client-side programming
  • Web services
what are web services
What are web services?
  • A form of remote procedure call: your program (the client) asks another computer (the server) to run a procedure for you
    • Parameters sent over the network from client to server
    • Results sent over network from server to client
  • Why would you ever want to do a remote procedure call?
    • Data needed for answer not (easily) accessible to your computer
    • You want to re-use existing procedures that run in a different environment than your program
    • Your computer lacks the resources (i.e. processor capacity, memory, network connection speed) to compute the result
  • There are many other forms of RPC older than web services
    • CORBA, DCOM, SunRPC, RMI
internals of an rpc framework
Internals of an RPC framework
  • Code for marshalling/unmarshalling – encoding and decoding parameters/results
    • A.k.a. serializing objects
  • Description of the available procedures (methods)
    • Using an interface description language (IDL)
  • Framework that turns these descriptions into “stubs”
    • On the client the stub makes it look to your program like the stub is executing the procedure locally
    • On the server the stub invokes the procedure
    • The client and server stub interact over the network
specific to web services
Specific to web services
  • They run over http
    • Procedure call is in an http request
    • Result is in an http response
  • They use XML to
    • Encode responses
    • Encode requests (sometimes)
    • Describe the procedures (incl. arguments and results)
  • Client and server often use different languages
    • Client may be JavaScript code in browser – AJAX
  • Client and server are often in different organizations