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[ Danish Policy ]. [Legislative]. Energy 2000, 1990 Target to reduce CO2 emissions in 2005 by 20% compared to 1988 levels. Energy 21, 1996 Reinforce targets of Energy 2000 by introducing new measures to achieve goals. Renewable energy share to be 12-14% of energy supply in 2005

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[Danish Policy]


  • Energy 2000, 1990
  • Target to reduce CO2 emissions in 2005 by 20% compared to 1988 levels.
  • Energy 21, 1996
  • Reinforce targets of Energy 2000 by introducing new measures to achieve goals.
  • Renewable energy share to be 12-14% of energy supply in 2005
  • Ban on construction of new coal fired power stations. Current Danish Energy Policy is being considered which may result in this law being stopped.
  • Wind Orders, 1996
  • -Land Based Wind Order
  • -Offshore Wind Order, 750MW by 2008
  • Combinedexpansion of both to be 1500MW in 2005. Target was almost reached by Onshore at the end of 1998, at present onshore capacity is 2,600MW.
  • Electricity Reform, 1999
  • Consumers obligated to ensure 20% of supply is from renewables, this to form the basis for a Green Market.
  • Green Certificates are awarded to generation companies per MWh produced, then are sold on the Green Market.
  • Market deemed impractical at present in 2001, implementation postponed indefinitely. May be realised if EU opts for harmonised scheme for supporting renewables in the future.
  • Climate 2012, 2000
  • -Supplementary firing of straw and wood chips, Aim to burn 150,000 tons of straw by end of 2004.
  • -Political agreement on a concrete basis for fixing the settlement prices to enable offshore wind to be as economically feasible as onshore.
  • -Creates foundation for political decisions on climate change issues in coming years.
  • -Predicts deficit of 4.4% for emissions targets.

[Danish policy]


  • Environmental Bonus
  • Environmental premium per kWh in addition to the market electricity price. Is specific to technology.
  • Onshore wind is 0.43 DKK/kWh for the first 12,000 full load hours, Offshore wind is 0.453 DKK/kWh for the first 25,000 full load hours. This gives investment in new Offshore wind a larger incentive.
  • Combined Energy and CO2 Tax, 1992
  • Renewables given exempt status.
  • Revenue used for subsidies for environmentally friendly forms of generation.
  • Green Tax Package, 1995
  • Aim to increase energy efficiency in Trade and Industry sector.
  • Subsidies for energy saving.
  • Energy Tax Rates Increased, 1998
  • -Prediction of future levels not satisfactory to fulfil goals, introduced as a result of a study into projected emissions and share of renewables.

[Danish Policy]

[Research and Development]

  • Development Programme for Renewable Energy (DPRE)
  • -Encourages development of technologies: Biomass, Wind and Solar Energy.
  • -Annual Budget- DDK 130-160 Million; 15% goes to subsidies for development of technology and demonstration projects, Rest goes towards subsidising installation of systems.
  • Energy research Programme (ERP)
  • -Supports Renewable Energy sources and Electricity Savings.
  • -Annual framework for subsidies – DKK 100 million.
  • Involved with - Subsidised development of Wind, Research, promoting biomass for energy purposes.
  • Renewable Energy Island Project, 1996
  • Subsidised project to demonstrate the economic/technical/organisational conversion of an entire community to 100% renewable energy supply over a ten year period.
  • 1997, Island of Samsoe is selected.
  • Wind, both on and offshore, is the main source of power, but biomass fuelled district heating systems, and home based renewable systems are also very important.

[Danish Policy]

[Environmental Drivers]

  • Potential:
  • - Small potential for hydroelectric schemes also contributed to growth of other renewables, especially wind which has been used in Denmark since the beginning of the century.
  • Old reliance on coal and oil
  • - The oil crisis of the 1970’s caused Denmark to explore its territories in the North Sea for oil, Denmark is now over 100% self sufficient in oil and gas. This resulted in oil powered generation, and then coal fired as a result of fiscal incentives. This meant huge greenhouse gas emissions per capita and growing environmental concerns caused a policy move towards very ambitious efforts to reduce emissions.
  • Kyoto Agreement,1997
  • - International Climate Change Program, Denmark to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 21% in 2008-2012 compared to 1990 levels.