Cardiovascular system • Consist of: • The heart. • The vessels(arteries , veins and lymph vessels)
The Heart The heart is a muscular organ consists of (cardiac muscles). Consist of 4 champers Two atria. Two ventricles Functions: Pump the blood to the other organs in the body. Endocrine function : sodium retention.
Blood Vessels Inferior vena cava and superior vena cava : from the body to the right atrium. Pulmonary artery: from the right ventricle to the lungs. Pulmonary veins : from the lungs to the left atrium. Aorta: from the left ventricle to the whole body.
Pulmonary Vessels Pulmonary artery: Carries the blood from the heart to the lung (deoxygenated). They are two in number. Pulmonary vein: Carries the blood back into the heart from the lung (oxygenated). They are four in number (two in each side)
Heart Valves Tricuspidvalve: from the right atrium to the right ventricle. Mitral valve: from the left atrium to the left ventricle. Aortic valve Pulmonary valve. All the valves have three cusps except the mitral valve, it has two.
Great Vessels Most of the vessels distributed symmetrically (each artery is associated with vein and they are the same in the right and left side of the body). At the trunk, the greatest artery (Aorta) lies at the left side to the greatest vein (inferior vena cava). At the limbs the arteries usually lie deep while the veins lie superficial
Blood Vessels Layers Tunica adventitia Includes external elastic lamina. Tunica media: Includes internal elastic lamina. Tunica intima: Includes endothelium and subendothelial layer.
Capillaries and lymphatics Artries give arterioles, which in turn give arterial capillaries. Venous cappilariesmerege to each other forming venules, which drian the blood into the veins. Lymphatic vessles formed from lymphatic capillaries.