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Class Agnatha - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Lepidosuauromorpha. Class Osteichthyes. Class Chondrichthyes. Class Mammalia. Testudines. Crocodilia. Dinosauria. Class Amphibia. Class Agnatha. Class Aves. Archosauromorpha. Diapsida. Eureptilia. Sauropsid opening. Amniota. Amniote egg present. Tetrapoda. Girdles and limbs.

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slide1

Lepidosuauromorpha

Class Osteichthyes

Class Chondrichthyes

Class Mammalia

Testudines

Crocodilia

Dinosauria

Class Amphibia

Class Agnatha

Class Aves

Archosauromorpha

Diapsida

Eureptilia

Sauropsid opening

Amniota

Amniote egg present

Tetrapoda

Girdles and limbs

Teleostomi

Vertebrates with endochondral bone

Gnathostomata

The jaw-bearing vertebrates

Subphylum Vertebrata

Vertebrae and cephalization

slide2

Bone formation

Can occur two ways.

1) Endochondral Bone

Also called cartilage

replacement bone.

During ossification

(=mineralization with CaPO4)

a cartilage model is replaced

2) Dermal Bone

Think of this as

skin bone

Dermal

bone

Forms in the

dermis of the skin

No cartilage model or precursor

slide3

Extinct agnathans

Several groups were

armored

with dermal bone.

Internal skeleton is cartilage.

Dermal bone is

phylogentically older.

Teleostomi

Bony fish plus

tetrapods

Internal skeleton

is endochondral bone.

Sheets of dermal bone

incorporated into skull roof.

Dermal bone used as armor in many forms.

slide4

Lepidosuauromorpha

Class Osteichthyes

Class Chondrichthyes

Class Mammalia

Testudines

Crocodilia

Dinosauria

Class Amphibia

Class Agnatha

Class Aves

Archosauromorpha

Diapsida

Eureptilia

Sauropsid opening

Amniota

Amniote egg present

Tetrapoda

Girdles and limbs

Teleostomi

Vertebrates with endochondral bone

Gnathostomata

The jaw-bearing

vertebrates

Subphylum Vertebrata

Vertebrae and cephalization

dermal bone

slide5

Characteristics of Tetrapoda

Girdles

and limbs

A very primitive amphibian

Pectoral girdle

Pelvic girdle

Fore limb

Hind limb

Limbs of all tetrapods have the

same basic components.

slide6

Lepidosuauromorpha

Class Osteichthyes

Class Chondrichthyes

Class Mammalia

Testudines

Crocodilia

Dinosauria

Class Amphibia

Class Agnatha

Class Aves

Archosauromorpha

Diapsida

Eureptilia

Sauropsid opening

Amniota

Amniote egg present

Tetrapoda

Girdles and limbs

Teleostomi

Vertebrates with endochondral bone

Gnathostomata

The jaw-bearing

vertebrates

Subphylum Vertebrata

Vertebrae and cephalization

slide8

Synapsids

Anapsids

Lepidosuauromorpha

Class Osteichthyes

Class Chondrichthyes

Class Mammalia

Testudines

Crocodilia

Dinosauria

Class Amphibia

Class Agnatha

Class Aves

Archosauromorpha

Diapsida

Eureptilia

Sauropsid opening

Amniota

Amniote egg present

Tetrapoda

Girdles and limbs

Teleostomi

Vertebrates with endochondral bone

Gnathostomata

The jaw-bearing

vertebrates

Subphylum Vertebrata

Vertebrae and cephalization

slide9

po

sq

j

q

po = postorbital

sq = squamosal

j = jugal

po

sq

j

q = quadrate

q

(and mammals)

po

sq

j

q

slide10

Skeletal system

Major components

Skull,

vertebrae,

ribs

Axial skeleton -

Appendicular skeleton -

girdles

limbs

Function

Lever arms in locomotion,

Protection of internal structures

A mineral “bank”

Produce/support structures used in communication.

slide11

Skeletal system

Cranial

skeleton

Postcranial

skeleton

Major components

Skull,

vertebrae,

ribs

Axial skeleton -

girdles,

limbs,

Appendicular

skeleton -

The vertebrate skull is produced by three major components:

The splanchnocranium

Forms the jaws, gill arches, hyoid,

Cartilages at the anterior end of the

trachea, glottis, epiglottis and larynx

The chondrocranium

Forms the braincase

The dermatocranium

Forms the skull roof,

armor on top of skull

slide12

Cranial

skeleton

Skeletal system

Major components

Skull,

vertebrae,

ribs

Axial skeleton -

The vertebrate skull is produced by three major components:

The chondrocranium

Cartilaginous in Agnathans

and Chondrichthyes

This structure is replaced by

endochondral bone in all

Teleostomi

slide13

The chondrocranium

is hidden by dermatocranium

slide14

The chondrocranium

Is still visible in the cat

As the skull bones on which the

brain rests:

Basisphenoid (2)

Presphenoid (22)

Alisphenoid (no #)

And the bones surrounding the

foramen magnum:

The occipitals (16)

slide15

Skeletal system

Major components of the skull

1) The chondrocranium

the brain basket

2) The splanchnocranium

Forms the jaws, gill arches, hyoid,

slide17

chondrocranium

Splanchnocranium is in blue

Chondrocranium is in black

slide18

Branchial Arches

Jaws:

Hyoid Arch:

17 - palatoquadrate cartilage

9 - hyomandibular

6 - epibranchial

5 - ceratohyal

4 - cerabranchial

11 - Meckle’s cartilage

Serial homology is an important concept

slide20

The splanchnocranium

Is represented in the cat skull

by dermal bone

That grows around the embyrological

palatoqudrate and mandibular cartilages:

Maxilla

premaxilla

palatine

pterygoid

Dentary

slide21

Skeletal system

Major components of the skull

1) The chondrocranium

Brain basket

2) The splanchnocranium

Jaws and gill arches

3) The dermatoocranium

Forms the skull roof, armor on top of skull

The shark has no dermatocranium

slide22

Dermal bones of the skull roof

are the most obvious elements

in dorsal view

nasal

frontal

parietal,

squamosal,

jugal,

slide24

It is the dermatocranium that is

fenestrated within the amniota.

slide25

embryological

source of skull

elements

in the mammal

skull anterior view
Skull: Anterior View

E.N. Marieb 6th ed. Figure 7.2a

Figure 7.2a

lateral view of human skull
Lateral view of human skull

E.N. Marieb 6th ed. Figure 7.3a

E.N. Marieb 6th ed. Figure 7.3a

inferior veiw of the human skull
Inferior Veiw of the Human Skull

E.N. Marieb 6th ed. Figure 7.4a

Figure 7.4a

mandible and its markings
Mandible and Its Markings

E.N. Marieb 6th ed. Figure 7.8a

Figure 7.8a

developmental aspects fetal skull
Developmental Aspects: Fetal Skull
  • Skull bones such as the mandible and maxilla are unfused

E.N. Marieb 6th ed. Figure 7.33

Figure 7.33

cleft palate

Cleft Palate

Lindsay Biggs

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2350/5/15/figure/f1

slide34

Causes:

Gene mutations

Environmental factors

Maternal diet

Medication and drug uses

Ethnic background

  • Background:
  • Palate – roof of the mouth
    • functions as a barrier between the nasal and oral portions of the respiratory tract
  • Cleft – fissure or opening
    • Incorrect joining of the mouth tissues
  • Most common congenital deformity of the head and face
  • Related Issues:
  • Feeding
  • Speech
  • Hearing
  • Facial growth

http://www.leap-foundation.org/cleft-lip-and-palate-information/

slide35

Cleft Palate Types:

Incomplete – a gap that does not run all the way from the lip and mouth and into the nose

Complete – a gap that goes all the way from the lip and mouth into the nose

Unilateral – occurs on only one side of the upper lip

Bilateral – occurs on both sides of the upper lip

Microform – a form of incomplete cleft that is very minor, such as a groove or notch

http://bestpractice.bmj.com/best-practice/monograph/675/resources/image/bp/5.html

slide36

Embryology

The face undergoes major transformations between the 5th and 10th week of gestation

Stomodeum – precursor of the mouth

Frontalnasal prominence – a midline swelling that forms the bridge of the nose

Nasal pits – invaginations that become the nostrils

  • Mandibular prominences – form the lower lip and madible

https://missinglink.ucsf.edu/restricted/lm/CongenitalAnomalies/CleftLipPalate.html

slide37

Treatments Options

First 6 months - initial repair of the lip and nose

12-18 months – palate repair

7-9 years – repair of the cleft in the gum line

Additional surgeries may be necessary to improve speech and repair improper jaw growth