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World War II: Continuation of the Trend toward Total or Pure War. Background: US enters the war to end all wars and to make the world safe for democracies: Revolutionary aims vs. European imperial system for global order and legitimacy
World War II: Continuation of the Trend toward Total or Pure War • Background: • US enters the war to end all wars and to make the world safe for democracies: Revolutionary aims vs. European imperial system for global order and legitimacy • Versailles Treaty to end the war with Germany establishes the Wilsonian principle of collective security: end the balance of power
Flaws of the Versailles Treaty and the Principle of Collective Security • The U.S. returns to a traditional isolationist position in European security and politics • President Wilson’s ideas of collective security, end of empires and self-determination, and democratic rule are rejected • United States refuses to join the League of Nations • Germany is not re-integrated into the community of states as Napoleonic France was in 1815 • Germany is accused of starting the war and must pay burdensome reparations • Germany’s military forces are limited and under the control of the liberal democratic states -- but without the US
Failures of the League of Nations and Collective Security • Japanese invasion of Manchuria (1931) and war with China (1937-45) • Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1935 • German reoccupation of the Rheinland in 1935 • Russian invasion of Finland in 1939-40 • German attack on Poland in September 1939 • World War II begins
United States Enters the War • Japanese Pearl Harbor attack, December 7, 1941 • Japanese War Aims: Protect Japanese Empire against U.S. • Eliminate the threat to Japan from U.S. naval forces • Seek a sphere of influence understanding with the United States • Similar to German-Soviet agreement in August, 1939 • US sphere of influence extends to Hawaii; Japan’s sphere in the western Pacific, China and Southeast Asia: Dutch Indonesia and French Indo-China; and British Hong Kong and Singapore
United States War Aims: Total Political and Military Victory • Return to Wilsonian revolutionary aims of a new global order: • Victory of Liberal democratic coalition • Destruction of the German and Japanese empires and political regimes • End of Europe’s empires and the global institutional principle of self-determination • Creation of a postwar liberal, global trading system • The democratic rule of a system of nation-states under United Nations auspices dedicated to a peaceful world order
American and Allied Strategic Military Aims • Destruction of the military forces of German and Japan and their allies • Complete political submission of the German and Japanese states, regimes, and peoples to allied rule
Total Warfare in Europe and Pacific • Germany defeated in May 1945 • Japanese surrenders in August, 1945 in the wake of atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
World War II as Total War: Hobbes and Clausewitz Return • 72 million civilian and military deaths • Civilian: 47 million • Military: 25 million
Flaws of the Allied Coalition and the Cold War” 1945-1991 • Liberal Democracies vs. Soviet Union • United States vs. European Empires • France • United Kingdom • Netherlands • Portugal • Belgium