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Vascular Plants. Moving to Land. Overtime, 500 millions of years ago, plants on Earth evolved from aquatic to terrestrial environments What are some problems to overcome? Material transport Structure/support Desiccation Gas exchange. Benefits to moving to land.

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moving to land
Moving to Land
  • Overtime, 500 millions of years ago, plants on Earth evolved from aquatic to terrestrial environments
  • What are some problems to overcome?
    • Material transport
    • Structure/support
    • Desiccation
    • Gas exchange
benefits to moving to land
Benefits to moving to land
  • easier access to sunlight for photosynthesis,
  • continuous free movement of carbon dioxide and oxygen
vascular plant organs
Vascular Plant Organs

Roots, stems and leaves

vascular plant organs5
Vascular Plant Organs
  • Roots – Absorb water and dissolved nutrients from soil
  • Anchor plants – in the soil and prevent them from being knocked down by wind
  • Storage – site for food storage
vascular plant organs6
Vascular Plant Organs
  • Stems – Support - hold leaves up towards the sun for optimal exposure for photosynthesis
  • Transport – between roots and leaves (via vascular tissue, phloem and xylem
  • Storage – site for food storage
vascular plant organ
Vascular Plant Organ
  • Leaves – Photosynthesis and Cellular respiration
  • Formulas????
    • Modified to reduce transpiration
      • Cuticle and pores
vascular tissues
Vascular Tissues
vascular plant tissues
Vascular Plant Tissues
  • XYLEM– Carries water and dissolved nutrients from the soil, from the roots, into the stem and into the leaves.
  • It forms a continuous set of tubes that stretch from the roots to the leaves
vascular plant tissue
Vascular Plant Tissue
  • PHLOEM– Distributes food made in the leaves throughout the plant.
  • The glucose produced by photosynthesisin the leaves, moves down towards the roots.
  • The direction of glucose transport can be reversed in situations when the glucose levels in the roots are greater than in the leaves.
  • In which situations might this occur?
vascular plants13
Vascular Plants
  • 10 phyla
    • Includes:1) seedless vascular plants (ie. ferns)

2) plants with unprotected seeds

(ie. Cone-bearing plants) 3) flowering plants

similarities with mosses
Similarities with mosses
  • 1) free-living gametophyte
  • 2) no seeds
  • 3) mobile sperm that require water for fertilization
differences from mosses
Differences from mosses
  • 1) a vascular system which transports water, nutrients and photosynthetic products around the plant,
  • 2) sporophytes as the dominant life stage
  • 3) stomata
  • Most diverse group of plants
  • Most abundant after flowering plants
  • Alternation of generation between gametophyte (haploid) and sporophyte (diploid)
fern life cycle
Fern Life Cycle
  • Takes notes from fig 10.7
fern life cycle18
Fern Life Cycle

-gametophyte (n) makes gametes sperm (n) and egg (n)

-gametes fuse when mature, fertilization

-zygote (2n) develops attached to gametophyte (n)

-zygote becomes spore-bearing sporophytes (2n)

-spores (n) disperse and develop into gametophytes(n)

fern sporophyte
Fern Sporophyte

-large leaves are called fronds

-fronds contain spores on the underside, contained in a sac called sporangia

-sporangia cluster together to form a sori


Young sporophyte growing out of a gametophyte

Sori containing clusters of sporangia

Grape-looking structures are individual sporangium