The Mechanics Of Computers The Operating System (OS) & Hardware
Role Of The Operating System (OS) • During start up (booting up) • Diagnose internal circuits. • Send signals to the screen and internal sound card. • Search for any attached peripherals. • Load common routines for controlling the computer.
Role Of The OS, Cont. • During Operation • Translates keystrokes, including mouse functions, for the internal hardware. • Performs those common routines such as saving, printing, etc. • Manages your desktop to allow multiple applications to run simultaneously and communicate to each other. • Allows interaction and communication with external devices over networks, through expansion cards, serial and/or parallel buses, etc.
The Look Of The OS • Graphical User Interface (GUI) • The single reason, in my opinion, for the proliferation of the use of computers in music. • It components: • Mouse gestures • Icons • Windows • Menus • Buttons
Files, Folders, and Volumes • Files - the smallest unit of organization (data structure) for which there is an icon representation of which there are three types: • Applications - referred to as programs • Data files - created by the application • Resource files - special files that add functionality to applications • Folders or Directories - storage bins used to organized files on the computer • Volumes - hard drives, floppy diskettes, CD-ROMs and other physical mediums where all files and folders are stored.
The Four Stages To Computer Operations (IPOS) • Input Stage - represents those devices we use to get information into the computer, e.g., keyboard, mouse, or MIDI keyboard. • Process Stage - where the central processing unit (CPU), memory (RAM and ROM), and timing clock stores the information received. • Output Stage - where the computer represents those devices used to get the information, e.g., video displays, printers, speakers, etc. • Storage Stage - where devices like floppy diskettes, hard disks, and CD-ROMs saves your data.
The Main Parts Of A Computer • Central Processing Unit (CPU) - an electronic circuit referred to as the microprocessor integrated circuit (chip) that serves as the brain of the computer and coordinates the flow of data in and out of the computer. • Motherboard - the main flat plastic board on which the CPU chip and other electronic circuitry is located, including chips for memory, video, and sound. • Memory (RAM and ROM) • Random-Access Memory (RAM) - Memory that is written to by normal computer use and stored temporarily. Also referred to as read-and-write memory. • Read-Only Memory (ROM) - Memory that stores permanent instructions and programs by the manufacturer (called firmware) to prevent the possibility of it being erased.
The Main Parts Of A Computer, cont. • System Clock - a precision quartz clock that determine speed and rate (clock speed) at which instructions are processed, measured in megahertz (MHz) and gigahertz (GHz). • Interfaces - • Internal parallel bus which allows the CPU, motherboard, memory, and clock to connect and communicate. • External bus (daughter boards) - allows external devices to communicate with the motherboard of which some common types are: • NuBus (although these have been mostly phased out) • Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI bus) • Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) or PC Card, for short. • Keyboard, Mouse, Storage Disks, Network Connectors