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CS 147 Lecture 19. Supercomputers 2. Prof. Sin-Min Lee Department of Computer Science. Cluster Computers. Clusters on the Rise Using clusters of small machines to build a supercomputer is not a new concept.

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Supercomputers 2 l.jpg

CS 147 Lecture 19

Supercomputers 2

Prof. Sin-Min Lee

Department of Computer Science



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Clusters on the Rise

Using clusters of small machines to build a supercomputer is not a new concept.

Another of the world's top machines, housed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was constructed from 2,304 Xeon processors. The machine was build by Utah-based Linux Networx.

Clustering technology has meant that traditional big-iron leaders like Cray (Nasdaq: CRAY) and IBM have new competition from makers of smaller machines. Dell (Nasdaq: DELL) , among other companies, has sold high-powered computing clusters to research institutions.


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Cluster Computers

  • Each computer in a cluster is a complete computer by itself

    • CPU

    • Memory

    • Disk

    • etc

  • Computers communicate with each other via some interconnection bus


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Cluster Computers

  • Typically used where one computer does not have enough capacity to do the expected work

    • Large Servers

  • Cheaper than building one GIANT computer


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Although not new, supercomputing clustering technology still is impressive. It works by farming out chunks of data to individual machines, adding that clustering works better for some types of computing problems than others.

For example, a cluster would not be ideal to compete against IBM's Deep Blue supercomputer in a chess match; in this case, all the data must be available to one processor at the same moment -- the machine operates much in the same way as the human brain handles tasks.

However, a cluster would be ideal for the processing of seismic data for oil exploration, because that computing job can be divided into many smaller tasks.


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Cluster Computers is impressive. It works by farming out chunks of data to individual machines, adding that clustering works better for some types of computing problems than others.

  • Need to break up work among the computers in the cluster

  • Example: Microsoft.com Search Engine

    • 6 computers running SQL Server

      • Each has a copy of the MS Knowledge Base

    • Search requests come to one computer

      • Sends request to one of the 6

      • Attempts to keep all 6 busy


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The Virginia Tech Mac supercomputer should be fully functional and in use by January 2004. It will be used for research into nanoscale electronics, quantum chemistry, computational chemistry, aerodynamics, molecular statics, computational acoustics and the molecular modeling of proteins.


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Visual Tour functional and in use by January 2004. It will be used for research into nanoscale electronics, quantum chemistry, computational chemistry, aerodynamics, molecular statics, computational acoustics and the molecular modeling of proteins.


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Current Cray Products functional and in use by January 2004. It will be used for research into nanoscale electronics, quantum chemistry, computational chemistry, aerodynamics, molecular statics, computational acoustics and the molecular modeling of proteins.

  • Cray X1 is the only Cray’s product with a unique vector CPU

    • Competitors are: Fujitsu, NEC, HP

  • Cray XT3 and XD1 use AMD Opteron CPUs (series 100 and series 200 accordingly)

  • You can find full product specifications as well as additional information on current systems at www.cray.com


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Performance Measurements functional and in use by January 2004. It will be used for research into nanoscale electronics, quantum chemistry, computational chemistry, aerodynamics, molecular statics, computational acoustics and the molecular modeling of proteins.

  • Performance is measured in teraflops

  • Linpack is a standard benchmark

  • Performance is also measured in memory bandwidth & latency, disk performance, interconnects, internal IO, reliability, and others

  • For example:

    • My home system, Athlon 750, gives about 34 megaflops (34*10^6 flops)

    • Current mid-range supercomputers give about 40 teraflops(40*10^12 flops) which is 1,176,470 times faster


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Scalable Architecture in XT-3 functional and in use by January 2004. It will be used for research into nanoscale electronics, quantum chemistry, computational chemistry, aerodynamics, molecular statics, computational acoustics and the molecular modeling of proteins.


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Is Cray a good deal? functional and in use by January 2004. It will be used for research into nanoscale electronics, quantum chemistry, computational chemistry, aerodynamics, molecular statics, computational acoustics and the molecular modeling of proteins.

  • Typical Cost approximately $30 million and above

  • Useful lifetime – 6 years

  • Most customers use supercomputers at 90% - 98% load

  • Clustered supercomputers and machines build around common desktop components (AMD/Intel CPUs, memory chips, motherboards, and etc.) are significantly cheaper


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Future functional and in use by January 2004. It will be used for research into nanoscale electronics, quantum chemistry, computational chemistry, aerodynamics, molecular statics, computational acoustics and the molecular modeling of proteins.

  • Cray’s “Red Storm” System in Sandia National Laboratories is running on Linux OS

  • Current Cost $90 million

  • Uses 11,648 AMD Opteron CPUs

  • Current operational speed – 41.5 teraflops

  • Uses unique SeaStar chip, which passes messages between thousands of CPUs

  • Upgrades are scheduled to be completed by the end of 2005 using dual-core Opteron

  • Expected to reach 100 teraflops by the end of 2005


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Computers and Weather forecasting functional and in use by January 2004. It will be used for research into nanoscale electronics, quantum chemistry, computational chemistry, aerodynamics, molecular statics, computational acoustics and the molecular modeling of proteins.

Weather forecasting


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Menu functional and in use by January 2004. It will be used for research into nanoscale electronics, quantum chemistry, computational chemistry, aerodynamics, molecular statics, computational acoustics and the molecular modeling of proteins.

Explanation

Weather station

Radiosonde

Overview picture

Satellites

Data collection

Radar

Weather ships

Sensors

Supercomputers

Data logging

Parallel Processing

The Grid System

Software

Pressing Weather forecasting on any slide will bring you back to this menu

Weather forecasting


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During the last two decades the Met Office has functional and in use by January 2004. It will be used for research into nanoscale electronics, quantum chemistry, computational chemistry, aerodynamics, molecular statics, computational acoustics and the molecular modeling of proteins.

used state-of-the-art supercomputers

for numerical weather prediction and more

recently, also for predictions of global climate.

This is a picture of a supercomputer

Weather forecasting


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Weather functional and in use by January 2004. It will be used for research into nanoscale electronics, quantum chemistry, computational chemistry, aerodynamics, molecular statics, computational acoustics and the molecular modeling of proteins. forecasting

Weather forecasters are helped by

several things. These include:-

1. The computer’s advice

2. Information from radar

3. Information from satellite pictures

The computer makes millions of calculations.

The sums are called differential equations

Before the computer can do the calculations,

data has to be collected first.


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Collecting data on the weather is very important. functional and in use by January 2004. It will be used for research into nanoscale electronics, quantum chemistry, computational chemistry, aerodynamics, molecular statics, computational acoustics and the molecular modeling of proteins.

Without the data, the computer could not do

the calculations that enable it to

make weather predictions.

The next slide shows where the data comes from.

It also shows where the forecasts are sent.

Always remember that the forecasters are highly

trained people and they use their judgement

and expertise to make their forecast

based on the information the computer

gives them and the information from the radar

and the satellite pictures.

Weather forecasting


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Satellites functional and in use by January 2004. It will be used for research into nanoscale electronics, quantum chemistry, computational chemistry, aerodynamics, molecular statics, computational acoustics and the molecular modeling of proteins.

Radio-sonde

Weather

stations

Radar

Weather ship

and weather buoys

Supercomputer

Weather forecasting


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Satellites functional and in use by January 2004. It will be used for research into nanoscale electronics, quantum chemistry, computational chemistry, aerodynamics, molecular statics, computational acoustics and the molecular modeling of proteins.

Radio-sonde

Weather

stations

Radar

Weather ship

and weather buoys

Supercomputer

Aviation

Forecaster

National and International

Forecast Services up to

7 days ahead.

Shipping

Global forecast services

Weather forecasting


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Satellites functional and in use by January 2004. It will be used for research into nanoscale electronics, quantum chemistry, computational chemistry, aerodynamics, molecular statics, computational acoustics and the molecular modeling of proteins.

Radio-sonde

Weather

stations

Radar

Weather ship

and weather buoys

Supercomputer

Aviation

Forecaster

National and International

Forecast Services up to

7 days ahead.

Shipping

Global forecast services

Weather forecasting


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Data is collected continuously for the computer from the following:-

  • Weather stations

  • Automated weather

  • stations

  • 3. Satellites

  • 4. Radar

  • 5. Radiosondes

  • 6. Weather ships

  • 7. Mini-radiosondes

  • 8. Radar

  • 9. Aeroplanes

  • 10. Drifting buoys

Weather forecasting


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The data measurements are made by sensors following:-

A sensor is a transducer which responds to some physical property such as pressure, temperature, rate of flow.

A transducer is an electronic component

which converts energy from one form to another.

We want the transducers to send signals to the computer in the Met. Office.

Weather forecasting


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The measurements needed include:- following:-

1. Temperature .. Air, surface and subsurface temp.

2. Atmospheric Pressure

3. Wind speed

4. Wind direction

5. Humidity

6. Rainfall

7. Sunshine

Weather forecasting


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These are some of the following:-sensors used to collect data.

Weather forecasting


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Data logging following:- is the capture and storage of data for future use.

All the measurements from the sensors are stored because:-

  • The computer processes the data in batches

  • People need to refer back to weather data for

  • many reasons

So data logging is used in weather forecasting.

Weather forecasting


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The next slides explain more about data collection. following:-

To jump to the details of the computers, click

on the computer.

Weather forecasting


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Radiation from the sun following:-

Formation of rain and snow

Formation of clouds

Radiation from the atmosphere

Evaporation and

heat exchange

Friction

Radiation from the earth

Mountain effects

Sea

The atmosphere is split up into a 3-D grid.

Each land based grid is about 60km.

Weather forecasting


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The vertical grid you just saw only had 5 levels. following:-

The Met Office uses far more, some computer models work on 40 vertical levels.

For the global forecasts the horizontal grid is 60km

For UK forecasts the horizontal grid is 15km.

Weather forecasting


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We need to measure pressure, temperature, following:-

wind speed and wind directions as well as rainfall, cloud cover,etc in as many grid spaces as possible

Sea

Weather forecasting


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Sea following:-

Weather stations are used here.

Weather forecasting


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A following:-weather station sends signals back to the Met Office computer.

The instruments measure pressure, temperature and humidity.

Some weather stations are automated. These send their measurements back to the computerdirectly.

Picture thanks to Sparholt school who have a great web site

www.hants.gov.uk/sparsholtschoolscentre

Weather forecasting


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We need to measure pressure, temperature, following:-

wind speed and wind directions as well as rainfall, cloud cover,etc

Radiosondes are used up here.

20 km

Sea

Weather forecasting


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A following:-radiosonde sends signals back

to the Met Office computer.

They are attached to a balloon

carrying instruments.

The instruments measure pressure,

temperature and humidity.

By measuring the track of the radiosonde,

the wind direction and speed can be calculated.

Photo courtesy of the British Atmospheric Data Centre

Weather forecasting


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UTC = Universal Time Co-ordinated following:-

All over the world, radiosondes are released at midday and midnight UTC.

Weather forecasting


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UTC = Universal Time Co-ordinated following:-

UTC is also known as GMT

Greenwich Mean Time

Baghdad

3 pm

Atlantic Daylight

9 am

Hawaii 2 am

West Australian

Standard7 pm

Here are some of the times when the radiosondes

are released to correspond with the ones in Britain at midday.

Weather forecasting


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We need to measure pressure, temperature, following:-

wind speed and wind directions as well as rainfall, cloud cover,etc

Minisondes are used here.

5 km

Sea

Everest is 8.85 Kms high.

So we have shown you a very high mountain!

Weather forecasting


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A minisonde system takes following:-

measurements

at 5Km above sea level.

Both radiosondes and minisondes

use radio waves to transmit the

data readings to the computers

Weather forecasting


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We need to measure pressure, temperature, following:-

wind speed and wind directions as well as rainfall, cloud cover,etc

Aeroplanes send data too.

10 km

Sea

Weather forecasting


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We need to measure pressure, temperature, following:-

wind speed and wind directions as well as rainfall, cloud cover,etc

36,000km

Satellites send data too.

Sea

The Geostationary satellites are 36,000 Km above earth.

Weather forecasting


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There are two types of satellites following:-.

  • Geostationary. These stay in the same spot.

  • They orbit the earth at exactly the same speed as

  • the earth rotates. They are very high above earth -

  • 36,000 km.

5 geostationary satellites are enough to give global coverage.

  • Polar orbiting. These orbit the earth about 14

  • times a day. They orbit at 1000 km above the

  • earth.

Weather forecasting


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A following:-Geostationary satellite stays in the same place with respect to earth all the time

A Polar orbiting satellite moves above the earth’s surface

Weather forecasting


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Picture courtesy of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites and photo courtesy of Dundee University.

The satellite’s signals are received by antennae.

©Eumetsat 2003

Meteosat: a geostationary satellite. It sends microwave signals back to earth.

The URL ( Uniform Resource Locator ) www.sat.dundee.ac.uk/tour.html will tell you more about satellites if you are interested

Weather forecasting


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This is a Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites and photo courtesy of Dundee University.Polar Orbiting Satellite

The satellite can take readings across the entire earth during the course of one day.

Weather forecasting


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Radar Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites and photo courtesy of Dundee University. stands for radio detection and ranging. Radio waves are transmitted, when they hit a rain cloud they bounce back to earth and measurements can be taken.

Sea

Radar systems are used here.

Weather forecasting


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Radar measurements let the forecaster and the computer know if the radar has seen rain clouds.

This is a radar station.

The computer and the forecaster receive data from the radar systems.

There is a network of radar systems covering Britain.

Weather forecasting


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There are also buoys taking weather if the radar has seen rain clouds.

measurements in the sea

Sea

There are weather ships out to sea

Weather forecasting


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This is a Weather ship. if the radar has seen rain clouds.

Thanks to www.gdfcartophily.co.uk

Buoys are used at sea more than weather ships these days.

They send their data automatically back to the computer.

Weather forecasting


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The Meteorological Office uses supercomputers. These are the largest computers in the world.

The Met Office has re-located (moved) to Exeter

from Bracknell.

Bracknell is near London.

Exeter is in the South West

of England.

There will be a new supercomputer

in the Met Office’s new location at Exeter.

  • Bracknell

  • Exeter

Weather forecasting


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A supercomputer is a very large computer, which works very, very fast. It is about 1000 times more powerful than a PC.

It also has an enormous store (memory).

We store Gigabytes (one thousand million bytes 109) of data on the Hard drives in our school.

Supercomputers have stores for Terabytes of data.

A Terabyte is

one million, million bytes, 1012 bytes.

Weather forecasting


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A supercomputer is a very large computer, which works very, very fast. It is about 1000 times more powerful than a PC

It usually has many processors working in parallel to achieve the fast processing time.

The Met Office supercomputers are

Massively Parallel Processor machines.

Weather forecasting


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Massively Parallel Processor very fast. It is about 1000 times more powerful than a PC machines use Parallel processing

Parallel processing is the simultaneous use of

several processors to perform a single job.

A job may be split into a number of tasks each

of which may be processed by any available

processor.

Weather forecasting


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When a computer uses very fast. It is about 1000 times more powerful than a PC

several processors in parallel

it is known as

parallel processing.

Parallel processing splits jobs up and gives different processors tasks. These all have to be brought together.

Parallel processing is difficult to program

Weather forecasting


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A very fast. It is about 1000 times more powerful than a PC

B

C

D

1*7

2*7

3*7

4*7

21

14

How does parallel processing work?

.

Let’s give four processors A, B, C, D a sum each

7

28

Weather forecasting


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If processor A did all four sums it would very fast. It is about 1000 times more powerful than a PC

take longer.

Parallel processing is very complicated

to program but it does make it faster

to do loads and loads of sums.

Weather forecasting


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Massively Parallel Processor machines very fast. It is about 1000 times more powerful than a PC.

MPP systemsrely on very high bandwidth

communications to move data between memoryand between different processors

so that they are all kept busy during program execution.

MPP systems use a distributed hierarchy of memory.This just means that they have to have a system of accessing the memory available.

Weather forecasting


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References very fast. It is about 1000 times more powerful than a PC

  • http://research.microsoft.com/users/gbell/craytalk/sld066.htm

  • http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blsupercomputer.htm

  • http://americanhistory.si.edu/csr/comphist/cray.htm

  • http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/cray.html

  • www.top500.org

  • http://www.spikynorman.dsl.pipex.com/CrayWWWStuff/

  • http://news.zdnet.co.uk/hardware/emergingtech/0,39020357,39162182,00.htm


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