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by Bahar Amangeldyeva. Democratic Development in Turkmenistan . 1 st International Conference on National Democracies Yerevan, Armenia 3-7 July, 2006. Flag description:.

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democratic development in turkmenistan

by Bahar Amangeldyeva

Democratic Development in Turkmenistan

1st International Conference on National Democracies

Yerevan, Armenia

3-7 July, 2006

flag description
Flag description:

green field with a vertical red stripe near the hoist side, containing five tribal guls (designs used in producing carpets) stacked above two crossed olive branches similar to the olive branches on the UN flag; a white crescent moon representing Islam with five white stars representing the regions or velayats of Turkmenistan appear in the upper corner of the field just to the fly side of the red stripe

geographical background of turkmenistan
Geographical background of Turkmenistan
  • Location:Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan
  • Map references:Asia
  • Area:total: 488,100 sq km land: 488,100 sq km
  • Area - comparative:slightly larger than California
  • Land boundaries:total: 3,736 km

border countries: Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621 km

  • Climate:subtropical desert
  • Natural resources:petroleum, natural gas, sulfur, salt
  • Population:5,042,920 (July 2006 est.)
  • Ashgabat- 727,700

Turkmenabat- 213,500

Dashoguz- 160,400

  • Age structure:0-14 years: 35.2% (male 913,988/female 863,503) 15-64 years: 60.7% (male 1,501,486/female 1,557,155) 65 years and over: 4.1% (male 79,227/female 127,561) (2006 est.)
  • Nationality: Turkmen (s)
  • Ethnic groups: Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%, other 6% (2003)
  • Religions: Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%
  • Languages: Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
  • Literacy: total population: 98.8% male: 99.3% female: 98.3% (1999 est.)
  • Military branches: Ground Forces, Artillery and Rocket Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces (2006)
  • Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - two years (2004)
governmental structure
Governmental Structure:
  • Government type: republic;
  • Capital:Ashgabat
  • Administrative divisions: 5 provinces (welayatlar, singular - welayat):

Ahal Welayaty (Ashgabat),

Balkan Welayaty (Balkanabat),

Dashoguz Welayaty,

Lebap Welayaty (Turkmenabat)

  • Independence:27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
  • Legal system:based on civil law system
  • Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
  • Executive branch: chief of state: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October 1990) head of government: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Saparmurat NIYAZOV cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president Saparmurat NIYAZOV elected president without opposition; percent of vote - Saparmurat NIYAZOV 99.5%
  • Legislative branch: under the 1992 constitution, there are two parliamentary bodies, a unicameral People's Council or Halk Maslahaty (supreme legislative body of up to 2,500 delegates, some of whom are elected by popular vote and some of whom are appointed; meets at least yearly) and a unicameral Parliament or Mejlis (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); membership is scheduled to be increased to 65 seats elections: People's Council - last held in April 2003 (next to be held December 2008); Mejlis - last held 19 December 2004 (next to be held December 2008) Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
  • Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT
economical overview of turkmenistan
Economical overview of Turkmenistan:
  • Turkmenistan is a largely desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated oases and large gas and oil resources. One-half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton; formerly it was the world's tenth-largest producer.
  • GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 26.9% industry: 39.5% services: 33.6% (2005 est.)

  • Agriculture - products: cotton, grain; livestock
  • Industries: natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing
  • Exports - commodities: gas, crude oil, petrochemicals, cotton fiber, textiles
  • Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
  • Imports - partners: US 11.8%, Russia 9.7%, UAE 9.2%, Ukraine 9%, Turkey 8.6%, Germany 8%, France 5%, Georgia 4.6%, Iran 4.5% (2004)
  • Currency (code): Turkmen manat (TMM)
  • Currency code: TMM
  • Exchange rates: in recent years the unofficial rate has hovered around 24,000 to 25,000 Turkmen manats to the dollar; the official rate has consistently been 5,200 manat to the dollar
  • Fiscal year: calendar year
communication system in turkmenistan
Communication system in Turkmenistan
  • Telephones - main lines in use: 376,100 (2003)
  • Telephones - mobile cellular: 52,000 (2004); there are 4 mobile cellular providers (2006)
  • Telephone system: international: country code -993; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; a new telephone link from Ashgabat to Iran has been established; a new exchange in Ashgabat switches international traffic through Turkey via Intelsat; satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat
  • Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 8, shortwave 2 (1998) Radios:1.225 million (1997)
  • Television broadcast stations: 4 (government owned and programmed) (2004
  • Televisions: 820,000 (1997)
  • Internet country code: .tm
  • Internet hosts: 557 (2005)
  • Internet Service Providers (ISPs):1
  • Internet users:36,000 (2005)
  • Airports:39 (2005)
  • Airports - with paved runways: total: 22 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 10 1,524 to 2,437 m: 9 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2005)
  • Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 17 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 14 (2005)
  • Heliports:1 (2005)
  • Pipelines: gas 6,549 km; oil 1,395 km (2004)
  • Railways: total: 2,440 km broad gauge: 2,440 km 1.520-m gauge (2004)
  • Roadways: total: 24,000 km paved: 19,488 km unpaved: 4,512 km (1999)
  • Waterways: 1,300 km (Amu Darya and Kara Kum canal important inland waterways) (2006) Merchant marine: total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 22,870 GRT/25,801 DWT by type: barge carrier 1, cargo 4, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1 (2005)
  • Ports and terminals: Turkmenbasy
internal policies
Internal policies:
  • providing the people with a dignified standard of living, security, the rights and freedoms of citizens, and strengthened legal foundations of social life.
  • Since 1993, Turkmenistan has provided its citizens, without charge, with gas, electrical energy, water, table salt, medical care, and educational opportunities. The free use by citizens of natural gas, electrical energy, drinking water, and salt was extended until 2020.
  • Symbolic payments have been set for housing, telephone service, and public transportation, and virtually every year salaries, student stipends, pensions, and public assistance have increased.
  • The country's workers annually receive paid vacations of 24 calendar days. Pregnancy and child care leave for women is paid for by the work place. For weddings and funerals, citizens are given time off from work with pay.
  • Orphans are cared for with full state support.
  • Apartment purchasing with 15-year credits with 3% interest only
social associations of turkmenistan
Social Associations of Turkmenistan
  • The Democratic Party
  • The Council of Elders
  • The Union of Women named Gurbansoltan-eje
  • The Union of Youth named Makhtumkuli
  • The Council of Veterans named Atamurat Niyazov
  • The trade unions
  • Non-governmental organizations
  • social associations
  • Professional and creative unions
education system
Education system:
  • Free access to education
  • Equal opportunities in obtaining scholarships
  • Equal opportunities for continuing education
  • Reducing the number of those not completing school
  • Equal access to sports activities
  • Access to educational information on the family
other rights
Other rights:
  • Right to work
  • Application of identical criteria in hiring
  • The right to a free choice of profession and type of work
  • The right to equal compensation
  • Right to social security
  • Right to safe working conditions
  • The right to travel and to choose a place of residence
youth participation in democratization process
Youth participation in Democratization Process:
  • Participation at conferences and establishing a dialogue between young generation and adults
  • Organization of the youth educational camps
  • Involvement into various actions
  • Working with Volunteers and as Volunteers
  • Promoting an understanding of “rule of law”
  • Attendance of round table discussions
  • Expressing their thoughts and ideas in the essays through essay contests
  • Etc
  • Stabilize the economic status of the government
  • To build a society inwhich the people are able to identify their needs and participate in the planning processes that aim at addressing issues of their everyday livelihoods, those of poverty and their participation in the decision making processes at all levels, from household to community and from local and Central Government level.
  • Education is the right of every human being, but proper education is the responsibility of the state.
  • Promote a broad and long-term perspective on good governance and human development
  • Participation at decision making process and educating people to build a democratic society is a right of every human being.Promote understanding of the “right”, but at the time, promote the understanding of the word “responsibility”
  • Promote understanding of Democracy as the rule by the people (from the Greek demos, "people," and kratos, "rule").