Counseling in mental health and private practice settings
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Counseling in Mental Health and Private Practice Settings

History

  • Prior to the 1960’s: Counselors usually worked in traditional educational settings.

  • National Defense Education Act of 1958: Federal funding provided for the proliferation of school counselors in elementary, middle and high schools.

  • The Community Mental Health Centers Act of 1963: Counselors employed to treat the mental health of clients instead of just those clients who were essentially healthy.

    “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”


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Counseling in Mental Health and Private Practice Settings

History (continued)

  • 1960’s-1970’s: Counselors employed in colleges, universities and junior colleges.

  • Vietnam War: The amount of federal dollars used to fund school counseling began to dry up and counseling positions within school settings decreased.

  • Proliferation of the community mental health centers offered counselors new opportunities.

    “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”


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Counseling in Mental Health and Private Practice Settings

History (continued)

  • Political and social events and the counseling profession’s focus on human growth and development all raised public awareness for the need for mental health counselors.

  • 1978: The American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA) (a division of the American Counseling Association) was founded.

  • The AMHCA actively advocated equality for mental health counselors among the ranks of other mental health specialists (e.g. psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers.)

    “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”


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Counseling in Mental Health and Private Practice Settings

The Need For Community-Based Mental Health Counseling

  • 22% of the adult population might be affected by mental disorders in any given year.

  • 15 million Americans will suffer from depression within their lifetime.

  • Unipolar depression is considered the leading cause of disability in the world.

    “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”


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Counseling in Mental Health and Private Practice Settings

The Need For Community-Based Mental Health Counseling (continued)

  • 52 million Americans have some type of drug, alcohol or mental disorder each year.

  • School counselors cannot provide all the mental health services needed by students due to extremely large caseloads.

  • As the population ages, gerontological counseling will be greatly needed.

    “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”


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Counseling in Mental Health and Private Practice Settings

Mental Health Counseling In Community Settings

  • Public Nonprofit Agencies: Usually sponsored by the state, county, or city. These agencies usually offer multifaceted services and are available to the general public.

  • Private Nonprofit Agencies: These are usually funded by private organizations (e.g. The United Way, Good Samaritan, or a religious organization). These usually include what the community mental health centers offer but also might have some services not available through the nonprofit centers.

    “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”


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Counseling in Mental Health and Private Practice Settings

Mental Health Counseling In Community Settings(continued)

  • For-Profit Mental Health Care: The counselor is paid from the client directly or through the client’s insurance provider. There is a greater selection of treatment options in these centers.

  • Private Agencies: Usually provides a range of services (e.g. individual, group, or marital therapy) or specializes in certain disorders (e.g. substance abuse, eating disorders or sexual abuse).

    “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”


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Counseling in Mental Health and Private Practice Settings

Mental Health Counseling In Community Settings(continued)

  • Private Practice: Usually this is provided by one counselor who has spent a lot of time and has gained a lot of experience working for another agency. However, many cannot be reimbursed by third-party payments so clientele is likely to be middle to upper class.

  • Hospital and Health Care Facilities: May be profit or nonprofit, private or public. Counselors in this setting often focus on crisis work, prevention, remediation or supportive counseling with patients.

    “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”


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Counseling in Mental Health and Private Practice Settings

Mental Health Counseling In Community Settings(continued)

  • Managed Health Care (HMOs): A large, privately run comprehensive health care system that includes mental health care.

    • Both the Master’s and Doctoral level counselors can work in HMO’s.

    • There are many ethical considerations when working in an HMO.

    • Client care is limited in duration and treatment modality.

      “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”


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Counseling in Mental Health and Private Practice Settings

Intervention Strategies in Mental Health

  • Counseling: Individual, group, marriage and family, and substance abuse.

  • Crisis Intervention: An intense, short-term intervention to help the client who is in crisis.

  • Advocacy: To plead the cause of a client or group and follow it up with action in support of that cause.

    “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”


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Counseling in Mental Health and Private Practice Settings

Intervention Strategies in Mental Health (continued)

  • Prevention:

    • Primary: Strengthening resistance to head off harmful influences.

    • Secondary: Identification of individuals who are at risk and providing remedial interventions to keep an event from happening.

    • Tertiary: Tries to avert further consequences when a problem has already occurred.

      “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”


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Counseling in Mental Health and Private Practice Settings

Intervention Strategies in Mental Health (continued)

  • Consulting: Providing specialized knowledge designed to help the consultee work through a problem.

  • Mediation: The facilitation of an agreement between two or more individuals.

    “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”


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Counseling in Mental Health and Private Practice Settings

Categories of Mental Health Services

  • Problems of Living: Problems that develop as one moves through the life-span (e.g. relationship difficulties, work problems, self-esteem problems, stress or psychosomatic illness.)

  • Mental Disorders: A dysfunctional pattern of behavior or psychological pattern that causes distress or disability for a prescribed amount of time.

  • Substance Abuse or Dependence: An impairment of social or occupational functioning and/or signs of tolerance or physiological withdrawal due to use of a substance.

    “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”


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Counseling in Mental Health and Private Practice Settings

Diversity Issues

  • Mental health counseling embraces all aspects of diversity.

  • Training programs have a multicultural component and train mental health counselor to be culturally sensitive.

  • Culture must be considered in all phases of counseling.

    “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”


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