chapter 9 project human resource management l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 9: Project Human Resource Management PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 9: Project Human Resource Management

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 51

Chapter 9: Project Human Resource Management - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 363 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 9: Project Human Resource Management. Learning Objectives. Explain the importance of good human resource management on projects, especially on information technology projects Define project human resource management and understand its processes

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 9: Project Human Resource Management' - mike_john


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 9 project human resource management

Chapter 9:Project Human Resource Management

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Explain the importance of good human resource management on projects, especially on information technology projects
  • Define project human resource management and understand its processes
  • Summarize key concepts for managing people by understanding the theories of Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg, David McClelland, and Douglas McGregor on motivation, H. J. Thamhain and D. L. Wilemon on influencing workers, and Stephen Covey on how people and teams can become more effective

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

learning objectives3
Learning Objectives
  • Discuss organizational planning and be able to create a project organizational chart, responsibility assignment matrix, and resource histogram
  • Understand important issues involved in project staff acquisition and explain the concepts of resource assignments, resource loading, and resource leveling
  • Assist in team development with training, team-building activities, and reward systems
  • Describe how project management software can assist in project human resource management

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

the importance of human resource management
The Importance of Human Resource Management
  • People determine the success and failure of organizations and projects
  • Recent statistics about IT workforce:
    • The total number of U.S. IT workers was more than 10.1 million in December 2002, up from 9.9 million in January 2002
    • IT managers predict they will need to hire an additional 1.2 million workers in the near future
    • Hiring by non-IT companies outpaces hiring by IT companies by a ratio of 12:1

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

digital planet reports
Digital Planet Reports
  • The global high-tech industry generated more than $2.1 trillion in 1999, $2.3 trillion in 2000, and $2.4 trillion in 2001
  • The Internet and e-commerce were notable bright spots in the global economy
  • Global e-commerce went up 79 percent from 2000 to 2001
  • China, Poland, and other developing countries are playing an increasing role in the global IT market

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

long hours and stereotypes of it workers hurt recruiting
Long Hours and Stereotypes of IT Workers Hurt Recruiting
  • Many people are struggling with how to increase and diversify the IT labor pool. Noted problems include:
    • The fact that many IT professionals work long hours and must constantly stay abreast of changes in the field
    • Undesirable stereotypes that keep certain people away from the career field, like women
    • The need to improve benefits, redefine work hours and incentives, and provide better human resource management

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

what is project human resource management
What is Project Human Resource Management?
  • Project human resource management includes the processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with a project. Processes include
    • Organizational planning
    • Staff acquisition
    • Team development

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

keys to managing people
Keys to Managing People
  • Psychologists and management theorists have devoted much research and thought to the field of managing people at work
  • Important areas related to project management include
    • motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic)
    • influence and power
    • effectiveness

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

motivation
Motivation
  • Abraham Maslow developed a hierarchy of needs to illustrate his theory that people’s behaviors are guided by a sequence of needs
  • Maslow argued that humans possess unique qualities that enable them to make independent choices, thus giving them control of their destiny

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

figure 9 1 maslow s hierarchy of needs
Figure 9-1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

herzberg s motivational and hygiene factors
Herzberg’s Motivational and Hygiene Factors
  • Frederick Herzberg wrote several famous books and articles about worker motivation. He distinguished between
    • motivational factors: achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth, which produce job satisfaction
    • hygiene factors: cause dissatisfaction if not present, but do not motivate workers to do more. Examples include larger salaries, more supervision, and a more attractive work environment

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

a definition of leadership
A Definition of Leadership
  • LEADERSHIP is a dynamic relationship based on mutual influence and common purpose between leaders and collaborators in which both are moved to higher levels of motivation and moral development as they affect real, intended change. (Kevin Freiberg and Jackie Freiberg, NUTS! Southwest Airlines' Crazy Recipe for Business and Personal Success, Bard Press, 1996, p. 298)

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

leadership versus management
Leadership versus Management
  • A leader can be a manager, but a manager is not necessarily a leader.
    • Management is the process of setting and achieving the goals of the organization through the functions of management: planning, organizing, directing (or leading), and controlling.
    • Leaders may not possess the formal power to reward or sanction performance. However, employees give the leader power by complying with what he or she requests. On the other hand, managers may have to rely on formal authority to get employees to accomplish goals.

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

leadership theory
Leadership Theory
  • Vroom, Yetton, Jago Leader-Participation Model
    • Leader-participation model relates leadership behavior and participation to decision making.
  • House's Path-Goal Theory
    • Based on the expectancy theory of motivation. The manager's job is viewed as coaching.
  • Fiedler's Contingency Model
    • Successful leaders must be able to identify clues in an environment and adapt their leader behavior to meet the needs of their followers and of the particular situation.
  • Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership
    • Based on the amount of direction (task behavior) and amount of socio-emotional support (relationship behavior) a leader must provide given the situation and the "level of maturity" of the followers.

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

hersey blanchard situational leadership the leader s level of support
Hersey-Blanchard Situational LeadershipThe Leader’s Level of Support
  • Directing Leaders define the roles and tasks of the 'follower', and supervise them closely.  Decisions are made by the leader and announced, so communication is largely one-way.
  • Coaching Leaders still define roles and tasks, but seeks ideas and suggestions from the follower.  Decisions remain the leader's prerogative, but communication is much more two-way.
  • Supporting Leaders pass day-to-day decisions, such as task allocation and processes, to the follower.  The leader facilitates and takes part in decisions, but control is with the follower.
  • Delegating Leaders are still involved in decisions and problem-solving, but control is with the follower

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

hersey blanchard situational leadership the leader s level of support grid
Hersey-Blanchard Situational LeadershipThe Leader’s Level of Support Grid

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

hersey blanchard situational leadership the follower s level of support
Hersey-Blanchard Situational LeadershipThe Follower’s Level of Support

D4

High CompetenceHigh Commitment

Experienced at the job, and comfortable with their own ability to do it well.  May even be more skilled than the leader.

D3

High CompetenceVariable Commitment

Experienced and capable, but may lack the confidence to go it alone, or the motivation to do it well / quickly

D2

Some CompetenceLow Commitment

May have some relevant skills, but won't be able to do the job without help.  The task or the situation may be new to them.

D1

Low CompetenceLow Commitment

Generally lacking the specific skills required for the job in hand, and lacks any confidence and / or motivation to tackle it.

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

applying situational leadership
Applying Situational Leadership

D4

High CompetenceHigh Commitment

Experienced at the job, and comfortable with their own ability to do it well.  May even be more skilled than the leader.

D3

High CompetenceVariable Commitment

Experienced and capable, but may lack the confidence to go it alone, or the motivation to do it well / quickly

D2

Some CompetenceLow Commitment

May have some relevant skills, but won't be able to do the job without help.  The task or the situation may be new to them.

D1

Low CompetenceLow Commitment

Generally lacking the specific skills required for the job in hand, and lacks any confidence and / or motivation to tackle it.

Follower’s Level of Development

Leader’s Level of Support

Match S4 to D4

Match S3 to D3

Match S2 to D2

Match S1 to D1

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

hersey blanchard situational leadership
Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership
  • Is a Type of Fiedler's Contingency Model
  • Requires the Leader to Understand the Development Level of the Follower
  • Theory Works Within Project Management
  • Learn More
    • The One Minute Manager by

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

mcclelland s acquired needs theory
McClelland’s Acquired-Needs Theory
  • Specific needs are acquired or learned over time and shaped by life experiences, including:
    • Achievement (nAch): Achievers like challenging projects with achievable goals and lots of feedback
    • Affiliation (nAff): People with high nAff desire harmonious relationships and need to feel accepted by others, so managers should try to create a cooperative work environment for them
    • Power: (nPow): People with a need for power desire either personal power (not good) or institutional power (good for the organization). Provide institutional power seekers with management opportunities

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

mcgregor s theory x and theory y
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
  • Douglas McGregor popularized the human relations approach to management in the 1960s
  • Theory X: assumes workers dislike and avoid work, so managers must use coercion, threats, and various control schemes to get workers to meet objectives
  • Theory Y: assumes individuals consider work as natural as play or rest and enjoy the satisfaction of esteem and self-actualization needs
  • Theory Z: introduced in 1981 by William Ouchi and is based on the Japanese approach to motivating workers, emphasizing trust, quality, collective decision making, and cultural values

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

thamhain and wilemon s ways to have influence on projects
Thamhain and Wilemon’s Ways to Have Influence on Projects

1. Authority: the legitimate hierarchical right to issue orders

2. Assignment: the project manager's perceived ability to influence a worker's later work assignments

3. Budget: the project manager's perceived ability to authorize others' use of discretionary funds

4. Promotion: the ability to improve a worker's position

5. Money: the ability to increase a worker's pay and benefits

6. Penalty: the project manager's ability to cause punishment

7. Work challenge: the ability to assign work that capitalizes on a worker's enjoyment of doing a particular task

8. Expertise: the project manager's perceived special knowledge that others deem important

9. Friendship: the ability to establish friendly personal relationships between the project manager and others

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

ways to influence that help and hurt projects
Ways to Influence that Help and Hurt Projects
  • Projects are more likely to succeed when project managers influence with
    • expertise
    • work challenge
  • Projects are more likely to fail when project managers rely too heavily on
    • authority
    • money
    • penalty

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

power
Power
  • Power is the potential ability to influence behavior to get people to do things they would not otherwise do
  • Types of power include
    • Coercive
    • Legitimate
    • Expert
    • Reward
    • Referent

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

improving effectiveness covey s 7 habits
Improving Effectiveness - Covey’s 7 Habits
  • Project managers can apply Covey’s 7 habits to improve effectiveness on projects
    • Be proactive
    • Begin with the end in mind
    • Put first things first
    • Think win/win
    • Seek first to understand, then to be understood
    • Synergize
    • Sharpen the saw

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

empathic listening and rapport
Empathic Listening and Rapport
  • Good project managers are empathic listeners; they listen with the intent to understand
  • Before you can communicate with others, you have to have rapport
  • Mirroring is a technique to help establish rapport
  • IT professionals often need to develop empathic listening and other people skills to improve relationships with users and other stakeholders

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

improving relationships between users and developers
Improving Relationships Between Users and Developers
  • Some organizations require business people, not IT people, to take the lead in determining and justifying investments in new computer systems
  • CIOs push their staff to recognize that the needs of the business must drive all technology decisions
  • Some companies reshape their IT units to look and perform like consulting firms

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

organizational planning
Organizational Planning
  • Organizational planning involves identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships
  • Outputs and processes include
    • project organizational charts
    • work definition and assignment process
    • responsibility assignment matrixes
    • resource histograms

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

figure 9 2 sample organizational chart for a large it project
Figure 9-2. Sample Organizational Chart for a Large IT Project

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

figure 9 3 work definition and assignment process
Figure 9-3. Work Definition and Assignment Process

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

figure 9 4 sample responsibility assignment matrix ram
Figure 9-4. Sample Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

figure 9 5 ram showing stakeholder roles
Figure 9-5. RAM Showing Stakeholder Roles

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

sample raci chart
Sample RACI Chart

R = responsibility, only one R per task

A = accountability

C = consultation

I = informed

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

sample resource histogram
Sample Resource Histogram

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

staff acquisition
Staff Acquisition
  • Staffing plans and good hiring procedures are important in staff acquisition, as are incentives for recruiting and retention
  • Some companies give their employees one dollar for every hour a new person they helped hire works
  • Some organizations allow people to work from home as an incentive
  • Research shows that people leave their jobs because they don’t make a difference, don’t get proper recognition, aren’t learning anything new, don’t like their coworkers, and want to earn more money

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

resource loading and leveling
Resource Loading and Leveling
  • Resource loading refers to the amount of individual resources an existing project schedule requires during specific time periods
  • Resource histograms show resource loading
  • Overallocation means more resources than are available are assigned to perform work at a given time

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

figure 9 7 sample histogram showing an overallocated individual
Figure 9-7. Sample Histogram Showing an Overallocated Individual

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

resource leveling
Resource Leveling
  • Resource leveling is a technique for resolving resource conflicts by delaying tasks
  • The main purpose of resource leveling is to create a smoother distribution of resource usage and reduce overallocation

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

figure 9 8 resource leveling example
Figure 9-8. Resource Leveling Example

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

team development
Team Development
  • It takes teamwork to successfully complete most projects
  • Training can help people understand themselves, each other, and how to work better in teams
  • Team building activities include
    • physical challenges
    • psychological preference indicator tools

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

meyers briggs type indicator mbti
Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
  • MBTI is a popular tool for determining personality preferences and helping teammates understand each other
  • Four dimensions include:
    • Extrovert/Introvert (E/I)
    • Sensation/Intuition (S/N)
    • Thinking/Feeling (T/F)
    • Judgment/Perception (J/P)
  • NTs or rationals are attracted to technology fields
  • IT people vary most from the general population in not being extroverted or sensing

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

meyers briggs lab exercise download from webster site
Meyers-Briggs Lab ExerciseDownload From Webster Site
  • Step 1. Go to web site

http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes2.asp

and take the on-line Myers-Briggs test.

  •  Step 2. Click on the type below for a brief description of each and a short list of careers which are attractive to each type
  • ISTJ ISTP ESTP ESTJ
  • ISFJ ISFP ESFP ESFJ
  • INFJ INFP ENFP ENFJ
  • INTJ INTP ENTP ENTJ

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

what is your leadership style
What is Your Leadership Style

Example

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

social styles profile
Social Styles Profile
  • People are perceived as behaving primarily in one of four zones, based on their assertiveness and responsiveness:
    • Drivers
    • Expressives
    • Analyticals
    • Amiables
  • People on opposite corners (drivers and amiables, analyticals and expressives) may have difficulties getting along

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

figure 9 9 social styles
Figure 9-9. Social Styles

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

reward and recognition systems
Reward and Recognition Systems
  • Team-based reward and recognition systems can promote teamwork
  • Focus on rewarding teams for achieving specific goals
  • Allow time for team members to mentor and help each other to meet project goals and develop human resources

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

general advice on teams
General Advice on Teams
  • Focus on meeting project objectives and producing positive results
  • Fix the problem instead of blaming people
  • Establish regular, effective meetings
  • Nurture team members and encourage them to help each other
  • Acknowledge individual and group accomplishments

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

using software to assist in human resource management
Using Software to Assist in Human Resource Management
  • Software can help in producing RAMs and resource histograms
  • Project management software includes several features related to human resource management such as
    • viewing resource usage information
    • identifying under and overallocated resources
    • leveling resources

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

figure 9 10 resource usage view from microsoft project
Figure 9-10. Resource Usage View from Microsoft Project

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

figure 9 11 resource usage report from microsoft project
Figure 9-11. Resource Usage Report from Microsoft Project

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9

project resource management involves much more than using software
Project Resource Management Involves Much More Than Using Software
  • Project managers must
    • Treat people with consideration and respect
    • Understand what motivates them
    • Communicate carefully with them
  • Focus on your goal of enabling project team members to deliver their best work

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 9