Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Dr. David Baglee. Faculty of Applied Sciences School of Computing & Technology University of Sunderland email@example.com extn: 2869
Modern MaintenancePractices: The need • Rapid Changes over the past 20 years • Increase in the value of assets • Increased complexity of assets • New maintenance methods • Changing views of organisations and responsibility of maintenance
Changing Awareness • Growing awareness of how equipment failure affects safety and environment • Awareness of connection between maintenance and product quality • Pressure to achieve increased levels of equipment availability and maintain costs
Attitudes and Skills • Maintenance staff need to adopt new ways of thinking • Managers are seeking a new approach to maintenance • Operator involvement
New Techniques • The pressure for change have resulted in several new techniques for maintenance planning and management • New tools include: • Decision support tools (expert systems) • Equipment design • Organisational changes • Maintenance techniques: TPM
TPM Introduction • TPM created in Japan, based upon the American concept of preventative maintenance • Examined corrective maintenance, maintenance prevention reliability engineering etc.. • The aim was to develop an all encompassing manufacturing philosophy • A unique aspect was the involvement of operators under Autonomous Maintenance
TPM Introduction • TPM born within Nippondenso a components supplier to Toyota in 1969 • The aim was to supply Toyota on a Just in time basis • This required the highest levels process reliability
TPM- Definitions • TPM - Total Productive Maintenance is a philosophy of manufacturing that focuses on the effective relationship of workers to equipment and the meaning and elimination of waste. • TPM improves the company by improving its personnel and its equipment. • It is a manufacturing philosophy not an engineering system
TPM Principles • Many studies have shown that 60% of breakdowns are caused by contamination and poor lubrication • Cleaning and “appropriate” routine maintenance can detect and prevent 70% of all breakdown causes
Elements of TPM 1. Maximise Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) 2. Develop Productive Maintenance (Reliability & maintainability) 3. Involve all departments who plan, design, use & maintain 4. Involve all employees from Top Management to Shop floor 5. Promote TPM through Small Group activity
1. Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) 1. Measure Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) • Availability • Performance • Quality • Eliminate the 6 Big Losses
The 6 Big Losses 1. Equipment Failure (Breakdown) 2. Set-up and adjustment downtime 3. Idling and minor stoppages 4. Reduced Speed 5. Quality Defects and rework 6. Start up losses Availability Performance Quality
Definition • Availability:determines how much time the Process is available for production. Shutdowns, Breakdowns, or Set up and Adjustment times reduce availability of a process. • Performance Rate:reflects the level of actual production with respect to desired production rate. Inherent machine problem causes in reduced Performance rate • Quality Rate: reflects the level of Quality products produced out of the total produced quantity. Defective products reduce Quality Rate.
Effect of 6 Big Losses TOTAL AVAILABLE TIME 1. Equipment Failures Breakdown Losses Operating Time 2. Set Up & Adjust Net Operating Time Speed Losses 3. Idling & minor stops 4. Reduced speed Defect Loss 5. Defects in process Valuable Operating Time 6. Reduced Yield
Effect of 6 Big Losses TOTAL AVAILABLE TIME 1. Equipment Failures Total Time- Downtime Total time X 100 Availability = Operating Time Breakdown Losses 2. Set Up & Adjust 3. Idling & minor stops Net Operating Time Speed Losses Actual Rate While running Design Rate Performance = X 100 4. Reduced speed Valuable Operating Time Defect Loss 5. Defects in process Material in - 1st grade out Material in X 100 Quality = 6. Reduced Yield
Equipment Effectiveness Availability x Performance x Quality Availability = time available for production – downtime time available for production Performance = actual production ideal production or capacity Quality Yield = total quantity produced – quantity out of spec total quantity produced
What should you expect? Based on results consistently obtained by Companies meeting the standard of the Japan Institute for Plant maintenance achievable TPM goals are: Availability: Greater than 90% Performance: Greater than 95% Quality Rate: Greater than 99% 90% X 95% X 99% = an OEE of 85%
TPM Pillars 2. Involve all departments • From Concept through Design to Operation and Maintenance all functions must play their part. • The Business strategy must cascade through the entire organisation and be consistent with maintenance excellence 3. Involve all employees • Starting with Management Commitment everybody in the organisation should understand their role in the delivery of TPM and be able to contribute
TPM Pillars 4.Team working • Overlapping teams throughout the organisation • Skills and knowledge combined • Management, maintenance and operators • Shared responsibility • Possible cultural problems?
Pillars of TPM 5. Autonomous Maintenance • Prevent deterioration: • Operate equipment correctly • Clean, lubricate and tighten bolts • Make adjustments (mainly set-up) • record data on breakdowns and malfunctions • Work with Maintenance to make improvements • Conduct daily inspections • Conduct certain periodic inspections • Develop Checklists
TPM IMPLEMENTATION • Develop and implement: • Cleaning instructions • Lubricating • Checks and adjustments • Data collection techniques • Continuous improvements
Workplace Organisation • TPM requires a thorough implementation of the 5S’s. • 5S methodology is a highly successful technique used to promote clean, organised and disciplined working environment • The 5S’s are a step-by-step approach common sense approach to organising any workplace by involving all employees who normally work in an area. • Sort • Store • Sweep and Shine • Standardise and Share • Self Discipline
Sort & Store Objective: To remove unneeded items and locate a specific place for specific items Decide what is needed and to be kept, and what is not needed to be discarded Key technique: Red tagging and sign boarding
Sweep and Shine Objective: To use cleaning to identify abnormalities and areas for improvement Key technique: Clean to inspect, visual sweeping
Standardise & Share Objective: To consolidate the first three S’s by establishing standard procedures Determine the best work practices Key technique: Visual management
Self Discipline • Objective:To sustain improvements and develop an environment for future improvements. • Key techniques: Auditing, training, 5S promotional campaigns, reward and recognition.
Wrong Approach to TPM • Production make a plan • Maintenance dept, not included • Plan given to operator to carry out all tasks • Tell operator to improve or move on!
TPM IMPLEMENTATION • Approach in a structured way • Accept 3-5 yrs • Culture shift(we use, you repair) • Measure benefits (OEE) • Support from everyone involved • Regular audits • Development ‘new’ maintenance system • Improve personnel training and development
Summary • TPM is not easy to implement • Based upon shop floor teams • Focus on machinery conditions and improvement • Compatible with and complementary to other quality initiatives • Implements Total Quality at the ‘sharp end’