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Spring 2012 Final Exam Review. Gateways to Biology. Ch 3.1 – Solar Energy Transformations. What is the chemical reaction for photosynthesis? sun 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2. Ch 3.1 – Solar Energy Transformations. What are the reactants of photosynthesis?

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ch 3 1 solar energy transformations
Ch 3.1 – Solar Energy Transformations
  • What is the chemical reaction for photosynthesis?

sun

  • 6 CO2 + 6 H2O  C6H12O6 + 6 O2
ch 3 1 solar energy transformations1
Ch 3.1 – Solar Energy Transformations
  • What are the reactants of photosynthesis?
    • carbon dioxide & water
  • What are the products of photosynthesis?
    • glucose (sugar) & oxygen
ch 3 1 solar energy transformations2
Ch 3.1 – Solar Energy Transformations
  • What is the specialized tube in plants called that carries water from the roots to the rest of the plant?
  • xylem
ch 3 1 solar energy transformations3
Ch 3.1 – Solar Energy Transformations
  • Identify three factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis and explain the effect of each.
  • Amount of light
  • Amount of water
  • Temperature
  • Access To CO2
ch 3 2 energy transformations in ecosystems
Ch 3.2 – Energy Transformations in Ecosystems
  • What do the arrows represent in a food chain?
  • the direction of the transfer of energy
ch 3 2 energy transformations in ecosystems1
Ch 3.2 – Energy Transformations in Ecosystems
  • Describe how much energy gets passed from one energy level to another in a food chain.
  • 10% of the available energy
  • 90% of the energy is used and released a s heat
slide8

Producers – transform light energy into usable chemical energy (sugars)consumers – consume 10% of the available energy from the previous trophic leveldecomposers – consume 10% of the available energy from any of the trophic levels in a food chain

ch 3 3 energy in foods
Ch 3.3 – Energy in Foods
  • What is the chemical formula for high energy sugar (glucose)?
  • C6H12O6
ch 3 3 energy in foods1
Ch 3.3 – Energy in Foods
  • Fiber in a healthy diet is supplied by which nutrient?
  • carbohydrates
how is the energy available in food measured
How is the energy available in food measured?
  • Burning it and measuring the change in temperature in water
what is a calorie
What is a calorie?
  • The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1˚ Celcius
ch 3 4 transforming food energy in usable nutrients
Ch 3.4 – Transforming Food Energy in Usable Nutrients
  • Where does digestion begin?
  • the mouth
ch 3 4 transforming food energy in usable nutrients1
Ch 3.4 – Transforming Food Energy in Usable Nutrients
  • What is the function of the large intestine?
  • reabsorbs water
ch 3 4 transforming food energy in usable nutrients2
Ch 3.4 – Transforming Food Energy in Usable Nutrients
  • What kind of proteins catalyze (speed up) metabolic reactions in the body?
  • enzymes
ch 3 4 transforming food energy in usable nutrients3
Ch 3.4 – Transforming Food Energy in Usable Nutrients
  • Name the organs of the digestive system that food passes through in the proper order and describe the function of each organ.
  • 1. mouth: chewing, mech and chem digestion
  • 2. Esophagus: transports food bolus to stomach
ch 3 4 name the organs of the digestive system that food passes through
Ch 3.4 – Name the organs of the digestive system that food passes through…
  • 3. Stomach: mech and chem digestion
  • 4. Small Intestine: absorption of nutrients
  • 5. Large Intestine: reabsorption of water
  • 6. Rectum: wastes exit body
3 5 cellular respiration and energy transformations
3.5 Cellular Respiration and Energy Transformations
  • What are the steps in the process of cellular respiration?

1. Glycolysis

2. Krebs Cycle

3. electron

transport chain

how does the body maintain homeostasis when the concentration of carbon dioxide increases
How does the body maintain homeostasis when the concentration of carbon dioxide increases?
  • The body will continue to break down glucose (glycolysis) without oxygen in order to make ATP

lactic acid builds up in muscles and keeps them from contracting resulting in muscle fatigue

what is the function of the villi in the small intestine
What is the function of the villi in the small intestine?
  • The villi are the site of nutrient absorbtion and increase the surface area of the small intestine in order to maximize the amount of nutrients being absorbed
what is the main function of the pancreas
What is the main function of the pancreas?
  • The pancreas releases enzymes into the small intestine to break down protein, fat, and carbohydrates
ch 4 1 dna the molecule of life
Ch 4.1 – DNA: The Molecule of Life
  • Why is DNA known as the molecule of life?
  • Because it contains the hereditary material (DNA).
ch 4 1 dna the molecule of life1
Ch 4.1 – DNA: The Molecule of Life
  • What is the base pairing rule for DNA?
  • thymine pairs with adenine
  • cytosine pairs with guanine
ch 4 1 dna the molecule of life2
Ch 4.1 – DNA: The Molecule of Life
  • What is the structure of DNA?
  • double helix
ch 4 1 dna the molecule of life3
Ch 4.1 – DNA: The Molecule of Life
  • Which enzyme links nucleotides to the open strand of DNA?
  • DNA polymerase
ch 4 1 dna the molecule of life4
Ch 4.1 – DNA: The Molecule of Life
  • What makes up the backbone of DNA?
  • sugar and phosphates
ch 4 1 dna the molecule of life5
Ch 4.1 – DNA: The Molecule of Life
  • What is the sequence that complements the DNA sequence ATGCCATGC?
  • TACGGTACG
ch 4 1 dna the molecule of life6
Ch 4.1 – DNA: The Molecule of Life
  • Why does DNA unzip and separate into single strands to form two identical copies?
  • To ensure that each new cell has exact copies of genetic material.
ch 4 2 cell growth through cell division
Ch. 4.2 – Cell Growth through Cell Division

What takes place in prophase?

  • Nuclear membrane breaks down.
  • DNA condenses
  • Centrioles divide and move toweards opposite sides of the cell
  • Spindle fibers form between the centrioles
ch 4 2 cell growth through cell division1
Ch. 4.2 – Cell Growth through Cell Division
  • In which phase of the cell cycle does DNA replicate?
  • S phase (synthesis)
ch 4 2 cell growth through cell division2
Ch. 4.2 – Cell Growth through Cell Division
  • Chromatids attach to each other at what?
  • centromere
ch 4 2 cell growth through cell division3
Ch. 4.2 – Cell Growth through Cell Division
  • In which phase of the cell cycle does the nucleus divide through a series of steps?
  • Mitosis
ch 4 2 cell growth through cell division4
Ch. 4.2 – Cell Growth through Cell Division
  • Be able to

identify pictures

of the phases

of mitosis.

ch 4 2 cell growth through cell division5
Ch. 4.2 – Cell Growth through Cell Division
  • What kind of cell is an undifferentiated cell that can become almost any type of cell in the body?
  • stem cell
ch 4 2 cell growth through cell division6
Ch. 4.2 – Cell Growth through Cell Division
  • What is the process where unspecialized cells develop into adult cells?
  • cell differentiation
ch 4 2 cell growth through cell division7
Ch. 4.2 – Cell Growth through Cell Division
  • What is the best surface area to volume ratio for moving materials into and out of cells?
  • 6:1 (largest ratio)
ch 4 3 plant growth and development
Ch. 4.3 – Plant Growth and Development
  • What are the two plant hormones that stimulate growth?
  • auxins and giberrellins
ch 4 3 plant growth and development1
Ch. 4.3 – Plant Growth and Development
  • What is the function of apical meristem tissues?
  • New cells are added along the tips of root and stems that elongate and differentiate into other tissues.
ch 4 3 plant growth and development2
Ch. 4.3 – Plant Growth and Development
  • Know the

parts of a

cross-section

diagram

of a leaf.

ch 4 3 plant growth and development3
Ch. 4.3 – Plant Growth and Development
  • What is the structure on roots that increases the surface area for water absorption in plants?
  • root hairs
ch 4 3 plant growth and development4
Ch. 4.3 – Plant Growth and Development
  • What are some

characteristics of seeds

that require animals for

dispersal? That require

the wind for dispersal?

That require water for

dispersal?

ch 4 3 plant growth and development5
Ch. 4.3 – Plant Growth and Development
  • What are some characteristics of a plant that survives in a dry environment?
  • types of leaves, types of roots, modifications to stems
ch 4 3 plant growth and development6
Ch. 4.3 – Plant Growth and Development
  • After seeds have soaked in water for several days, a root emerges from the enlarged seeds. What conclusion can be made from this observation?
  • Energy stored in seeds is activated and used to grow roots to anchor the plant and establish a system for obtaining water.
ch 4 4 reproduction
Ch. 4.4 – Reproduction
  • Why do flowers have more pollen grains than ovules in the ovary?
  • Because the pollen grains have to travel to the ovary.
ch 4 4 reproduction1
Ch. 4.4 – Reproduction
  • What is the main difference between mitosis and meiosis?
  • The results of meiosis provide a greater variety of genetic outcomes while mitosis produces a clone of the original cell.
ch 4 4 reproduction2
Ch. 4.4 – Reproduction
  • The male and female reproductive systems are similar in several ways. Which pair of organs is most similar in structure and function?
  • vas deferens to fallopian tube
ch 4 4 reproduction3
Ch. 4.4 – Reproduction
  • Why are gametes haploid?
  • Haploid gametes maintain the species’ chromosome number during fertilization.
ch 4 4 reproduction4
Ch. 4.4 – Reproduction
  • Which reproductive organs play a role in both the reproductive and endocrine systems?
  • ovaries and testes
ch 4 4 reproduction5
Ch. 4.4 – Reproduction
  • Which reproductive organ functions to protect fertilized ova?
  • ovary
ch 4 4 reproduction6
Ch. 4.4 – Reproduction
  • What is an advantage of asexual reproduction?
  • Energy is conserved because production of gametes is not required.
ch 4 4 reproduction7
Ch. 4.4 – Reproduction
  • Explain the similarities and differences between asexual and sexual reproduction. Include examples of both in your response.
  • Similar – both produce new organisms
  • Different – asexual produces exact copy of parent; sexual requires haploid gametes from 2 parents for a new individual
ch 4 4 reproduction8
Ch. 4.4 – Reproduction
  • Explain the similarities and differences between asexual and sexual reproduction. Include examples of both in your response.
  • Examples:
  • Asexual: budding, fission.
  • Sexual: pollination, fertilization.
ch 5 1 protein synthesis
Ch. 5.1 – Protein Synthesis
  • What is the sequence of mRNA bases for the correct transcription of the DNA sequence 5’GGGACATGATTCGCC3’?
  • 3’CCCUGUACUAAGCGG5’
ch 5 1 protein synthesis1
Ch. 5.1 – Protein Synthesis
  • What is the role or job of tRNA in protein synthesis?
  • tRNA bring amino acids to the ribosomes to help make proteins.
ch 5 1 protein synthesis2
Ch. 5.1 – Protein Synthesis
  • What is the type of mutation represented by the amino acid sequence below?

Correctsequence:Leucine – Alanine – Glycine –

Leucine

Mutatedsequence:Leucine – Alanine – Valine –

Leucine

  • Substitution
ch 5 1 protein synthesis3
Ch. 5.1 – Protein Synthesis
  • Which series of amino acids is the correct translation of the mRNA molecule represented here - 3’CCU AAA AGU GCA5’?
  • proline, lysine, serine, alanine
ch 5 1 protein synthesis4
Ch. 5.1 – Protein Synthesis
  • Translate the following DNA strand to determine the correct order of amino acids - 5’CGG CAA TTT AAC3’.
  • alanine, valine, lysine, leucine
ch 5 1 protein synthesis5
Ch. 5.1 – Protein Synthesis
  • A gene represented by the DNA strand 5’AGA GGG CCA AAT3’ undergoes a mutation. Which type of mutation would have the greatest affect on a person’s health?
  • the more codons affected, the more the affect on the final protein
ch 5 1 protein synthesis6
Ch. 5.1 – Protein Synthesis
  • Which molecule transcribes the code for proteins?
  • mRNA molecule
ch 5 2 genetics
Ch. 5.2 – Genetics
  • If the letters P and p represent alleles of the same gene, then a cat with the genotype Pp would be considered what?
  • Heterozygous or hybrid
ch 5 2 genetics1
Ch. 5.2 – Genetics
  • What is Mendel’s law of segregation?
  • Parent alleles separate into different gametes during meiosis.
ch 5 2 genetics2
Ch. 5.2 – Genetics
  • What is the phenotypic ratio of the F1 monohybrid cross of two heterozygotes?
  • 3:1
ch 5 2 genetics3
Ch. 5.2 – Genetics
  • In pea plants, tallness is dominant over shortness and yellow seed color is dominant over green seed color. If pea plants that are heterozygous for tallness and heterozygous for seed coat color is crossed, what are the possible alleles in the gametes?
  • TY, Ty, tY, ty
ch 5 3 human genetics
Ch. 5.3 – Human Genetics
  • Skin color and eye color are examples of what type of inheritance?
  • polygenic traits
ch 5 3 human genetics1
Ch. 5.3 – Human Genetics
  • In snapdragons, R represents red flowers and r represents white flowers. In the cross RR x rr, all of the offspring have pink flowers. What is this pattern of inheritance?
  • incomplete dominance
ch 6 1 natural selection
Ch. 6.1 – Natural Selection
  • What is natural selection?
  • Natural selection determines which phenotypes in a population support survival.
ch 6 1 natural selection1
Ch. 6.1 – Natural Selection
  • Survival of the populations of organisms hinges on adequate supplies of food, water and shelter. What would limit available resources?
  • competition
ch 6 1 natural selection2
Ch. 6.1 – Natural Selection
  • Mutualism is a type of symbiotic relationship between two species that supports survival of both species. What is an example of a mutual relationship?
  • bees pollinate flowering plants
ch 6 1 natural selection3
Ch. 6.1 – Natural Selection
  • How are traits for camouflage and mimicry are result of natural selection?
  • Predators recognize, hunt and eat prey.
ch 6 1 natural selection4
Ch. 6.1 – Natural Selection
  • How do mutualism, parasitism and commensalism influence natural selection?
  • Mutualism – benefits both organisms
  • Parasitism – benefits one, harms the other
  • Commensalism – benefits one, but not the other
  • Since organisms depend on each other, if one dies, the other could follow.
ch 6 3 classification
Ch. 6.3 – Classification
  • What taxonomic group is the most general?

Kindom

  • Kingdom Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

ch 6 3 classification1
Ch. 6.3 – Classification
  • What is binomial nomenclature based on?
  • genus and species
ch 6 3 classification2
Ch. 6.3 – Classification
  • Based on the characteristics of the unknown organism, how should it be classified?

Characteristics of unknown organism

eukaryotic

multicellular

heterotrophic

extracellular digestion

  • fungus