Consumption . Consumers play an important role in the economic system. Consumer: any person or group that buys or uses goods and services to satisfy personal needs and wants. What do consumers buy?. Disposable and Discretionary Income.
Consumers play an important role in the economic system.
Consumer: any person or group that buys or uses goods and services to satisfy personal needs and wants.
A person’s role as a consumer depends on his or her ability to consume. This ability to consume depends on available income and how much of it a person chooses to spend now or save for future spending.
Disposable income: the money income a person has left after all taxes have been paid.
People first spend disposable income on necessities like food, clothing, and housing. Look at page 60’s chart of consumer spending.
Education, occupation, experience, and health all influence a person’s earning power and thus his/her ability to consume.
Look at the chart on page 61 that shows how education affects income.
Where a person lives can also influence how much a person earns: city dwellers tend to earn more than those in rural areas and some regions of the country tend to be higher also.
Decision making involves three parts:
Scarce resources: income and time
Choosing the alternative that has the greatest value from among comparable-quality products.
A movement to educate buyers about the purchases they make and to demand better and safer products from manufacturers
The Lemon Law:
Consumers must be proactive in their buying habits.
1962 President John F. Kennedy—first protection message to Congress
Using President Kennedy’s list, Congress passed consumer-protection legislation.
his "finest achievement" in consumer protection
Read over the list of the federal bureaus on page 74 of your economics' book.
Receipt of money either directly or indirectly to buy goods and services in the present with the promise to pay for them in the future.
The amount owed—the debt—is equal to the principal plus interest.
Principal: amount of money originally borrowed in a loan
Interest: amount of money the borrower must pay for the use of someone else’s money
Taking out a loan is the same as buying an item on credit. In both cases, you must pay interest for the use of someone else’s purchasing power. Anytime your receive credit, you are borrowing funds and going into debt.
One of the most common types of debt
Type of loan repaid with equal payments, or installments, over a specific period of time
Most people buy durable goods, or manufactured items that last longer than three years on an installment plan.
Longer repayment period=smaller monthly payments
The longer it takes to repay an installment loan, the greater the total interest the lender charges!
The largest form of installment debt in the United States is the money people owe on mortgages.
mortgage: installment debt owed on houses, buildings, or land
People buy items on credit because they believe they require these items immediately.
Many people do not want to postpone purchasing an important durable good like a car or truck. They would rather buy on credit and enjoy the use of the item now rather than later.
Another reason for going into debt is to spread the payments over the life of the item being purchased.
The decision to borrow or use credit involves whether the satisfaction the borrower gets from the purchases is greater than the interest payments.
Purchase satisfaction > interest payments
Benefit: buy and enjoy the goods or services now
Costs: interest payments or lost opportunities to buy other items.
Comparing costs and benefits
1. Do I really require this item? Can I postpone purchasing the item until later?
2. If I pay cash, what will I be giving up that I could buy with this money? This is an opportunity cost.
3. If I borrow or use credit, will the satisfaction I get from the item I buy be greater than the interest I must pay? This is also an opportunity cost.
4. Have I done comparison shopping for credit? Look for the best loan or credit deal including the lowest interest rate if not paying cash.
5. Can I afford to borrow or use credit now?
Answer the following on another piece of paper to turn in during class tomorrow.
What are the advantages of repaying installment debt over a long period of time?
Why do people go into debt?
Go to this website and take a reality check.
There are two major types of credit—using credit cards and borrowing money directly from a financial institution.
Types of Financial Institutions:
*The services customers receive may include savings and checking accounts, loans, investments, and financial counseling.
*The benefits consumers gain by using financial institutions includes convenience, cost savings, safety, and security.
*It can be in the consumer’s best interest to research financial institutions and to use one institution for all their financial needs.
*The advantages to choosing one institution include building a relationship, the simplicity of having all accounts in one place, and possibly lower interest rates on loans.
Financial institutions are more willing to offer loans with lower interest rates to loyal customers.
Depository institutions offer banking services and loans to individuals and businesses.
o Although they can be referred to as banks in general, each is a distinct type of institution.
o Depository institutions include:
Commercial banks – also known as full-service banks because they offer the wide variety of services and products available including checking and savings accounts, loans, credit cards, investments, and advice; operate under state and federal laws; usually the largest banks; insured by the FDIC.
Savings & loan associations (S & Ls) – focus on providing loans and mortgages to customers who hold a savings account; insured by the SAIF; generally pay a higher interest rate than commercial banks; provide interest earning checking accounts.
What are four types of financial institutions
Credit extended to a consumer allowing the consumer to buy goods or services from a particular company and to pay for them later
Charge accounts may be in the form of a charge account or a credit card.
A regular charge account (30-day charge) has a credit limit of $500 or $1000. At the end of the 30 days, the store sends a bill for the full amount. If not paid in full, interest is added.
Regular Charge accounts:
Credit limit: the maximum amount of goods or services a person or business can buy on the promise to pay in the future.
Allows you to make additional purchases from the same store even if you have not paid the previous month’s bill in full. Usually you must pay 1/5 of the amount. If not paid in full, interest is added.
Installment Charge Accounts:
Items are purchased and paid for through equal payments spread over a period of time.
Part of the amount paid each month is paid to the interest and part is applied to the principal.
Major items such as sofas, televisions, and refrigerators are often purchased through an installment charge account.
Allows a person to make purchases without paying cash
The difference: credit cards can be used at many kinds of stores, restaurants, hotels, and other businesses throughout the United States and even foreign countries.
Banks issue the cards. These cards may be used to purchase items or they may be used to borrow funds up to a certain limit.
the cost of credit expressed in dollars and cents
The way finance charges are computed is an important factor in determining the cost of credit.
Store charge accounts and credit cards use one of four methods to determine how much people will pay for credit.
cost of credit expressed as a yearly percentage (also takes into account things like membership fees)
The APR provides a guide that allows consumers to compare costs regardless of the dollar amount of those costs or the length of the credit agreement.
A debit card does not provide a loan.
Debit cards make cashless purchases easier by enabling customers to transfer funds electronically from their bank accounts directly to the store or restaurant where they purchased goods.
Credit bureau: private business hired to do a credit check
Credit check: investigation of a person’s income, current debts, personal life, and past history of borrowing and repaying debts
Credit rating: rating of the risk involved in lending money to a specific person or business
that a credit check reveals:
When a financial institution makes a loan and asks for collateral
The collateral may be the item purchased with the loan money such as a house or a car. It may be something of value the borrower already owns. The lender can claim the collateral if the loan isn’t repaid.
When a financial institution makes a loan to someone with little or no collateral based on reputation alone.
Many times the financial institution will ask for a cosigner for the loan. That person will pay back the loan if the borrower does not.