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Earthquakes. Measuring Earthquakes. Guide For Reading. What are the different kinds of seismic waves? How does the energy of an earthquake travel through Earth? What are the scales used to measure the strength of an Earthquake?. There are about ______ earthquakes per day, worldwide. 8,000.

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earthquakes

Earthquakes

Measuring Earthquakes

guide for reading
Guide For Reading
  • What are the different kinds of seismic waves?
  • How does the energy of an earthquake travel through Earth?
  • What are the scales used to measure the strength of an Earthquake?
most earthquakes begin below the earth s surface in the within kilometers from earth s surface
Most earthquakes begin below the earth’s surface in the _______ within ______ kilometers from Earth’s surface.
  • Lithosphere
  • 100
focus
Focus
  • The point beneath Earth’s surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
epicenter
Epicenter
  • The point on Earth’s surface directly above an earthquake’s focus
seismic waves8
Seismic Waves
  • A vibration that travels through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake
what determines how much the ground shakes during an earthquake
What determines how much the ground shakes during an earthquake?
  • How close a location is to the epicenter
  • The types of rock and soil surrounding the epicenter determines how much the ground shakes
guide for reading what are the different kinds of seismic waves
Guide For Reading: What are the different kinds of seismic waves?
  • There are three types of seismic waves:
      • Primary Waves (P waves)
      • Secondary Waves (S waves)
      • Surface Waves
  • An earthquake sends out two types of waves P waves and S waves
  • When the waves reach Earth’s surface at the epicenter, surface waves develop.
primary waves p waves
Primary Waves (P Waves)
  • A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground
  • The first wave to arrive at an earthquake
describe how p waves move
Describe how P waves move?
  • P waves compress and expand like an accordion
  • When P waves arrive they vibrate the particles of the crust forward and back along the path of the wave
secondary waves s waves
Secondary Waves (S Waves)
  • A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side
how are p waves different from s waves
How are P waves different from S Waves?
  • P waves compress and expand the ground
      • These waves cause buildings to contract and expand
      • P waves travel through solids and liquids
  • S waves vibrate from side to side
      • These waves vibrate from side to side and thrust the ground up and down, or back and forth
      • S waves can not move through liquids
surface waves19
Surface Waves
  • A type of seismic wave that forms when P waves and S waves reach Earth’s surface
why do you think surface waves produce more severe ground movements than p waves and s waves
Why do you think surface waves produce more severe ground movements than P waves and S waves?
  • Surface waves consist of loose soil, sand, gravel, mud, small rocks, not solid rock
  • These more loose substances are more likely shift and slide
guide for reading how does the energy of an earthquake travel through earth
Guide For Reading: How does the energy of an earthquake travel through Earth?
  • Seismic waves carry the energy of an earthquake from the focus, through Earth’s interior, to the epicenter, and across the surface
seismograph
Seismograph
  • A device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth
describe how a mechanical seismograph records ground movement
Describe how a mechanical seismograph records ground movement.
  • A heavy weight attaches to a frame by spring or wire
  • A pen connected to the weight rests its point on a rotating drum
  • During an earthquake the seismic waves cause the drum to shake while the pen stays in place
  • The pen records lines on the paper around the drum
magnitude
Magnitude
  • The measurement of an earthquake’s strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults
mercalli scale
Mercalli Scale
  • A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause
  • Developed in the early twentieth century
the mecalli scale has steps and describes how an earthquake affects and the
The Mecalli scale has ______ steps and describes how an earthquake affects ______, ______, and the ______.
  • 12
  • People
  • Buildings
  • Land surface
figure 14 how would you rate the damage to the foligno city hall on the mercalli scale
Figure 14: How would you rate the damage to the Foligno city hall on the Mercalli scale?
  • The damage would probably rate VII - VIII
richter scale
Richter Scale
  • A scale that rates seismic waves as measured by a particular type of mechanical seismograph
how does the richter scale measure an earthquake
How does the Richter scale measure an earthquake?
  • The Richter scale measures seismic waves using a seismograph
  • Over time, mechanical seismographs were replaced by electronic seismographs
what is a strength of the richter scale when measuring earthquakes what is a weakness
What is a strength of the Richter scale when measuring earthquakes? What is a weakness?
  • Strength: Provides accurate measurements for small, nearby earthquakes
  • Weakness: Does not measure larger and more distant earthquakes well
how are the mercalli scale and the richter scale similar how are they different
How are the Mercalli scale and the Richter scale similar? How are they different?
  • Both measure the strength of an earthquake
  • The Mercalli scale measures the strength in terms of extent people notice the earthquake and the amount of damage caused
  • The Richter scale measures the size of seismic waves
moment magnitude scale
Moment Magnitude Scale
  • A scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake
why is the moment magnitude scale used today by geologists to measure earthquakes
Why is the moment magnitude scale used today by geologists to measure earthquakes?
  • The moment magnitude scale determines the total energy released by an earthquake
  • This scale uses a electronic seismograph that can measure earthquakes that are big or small, and near or far
  • Geologist examine movement along the fault and the strength of broken rock
  • These two measurements give a more accurate measurement of an earthquake
on which scale would an earthquake s strength vary from one place to another explain
On which scale would an earthquake’s strength vary from one place to another? Explain.
  • The Mercalli scale because the amount of shaking that people would feel and the damage to objects would be greater in a place closer to the earthquake’s epicenter
checkpoint what are three scales for measuring earthquakes explain what each one measures
Checkpoint:What are three scales for measuring earthquakes? Explain what each one measures.
  • Mercalli Scale
      • Measures earthquakes on how much damage they cause
  • Richter Scale
      • Measures seismic waves using a seismograph
      • Measures small and nearby earthquakes
  • Moment Magnitude Scale
      • Looks at the total energy released
      • Measures large and distant earthquakes
      • Helps scientists predict how much fault movement their was
how do scientists calculate how far a location is from the epicenter of an earthquake
How do scientists calculate how far a location is from the epicenter of an earthquake?
  • Scientists calculate the difference between arrival times of the P waves and S waves
  • The further away an earthquake is, the greater the time between the arrival of the P waves and the S waves
slide45
Figure 17: Use the map scale to determine the distances from Savannah and Houston to the epicenter. Which one is closer?
  • Houston
      • 800 Km
  • Savannah
      • 900 km