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Clausius-Clapeyron Equation. As assigned by Mr. Amendola despite the fact that he is no longer our chemistry teacher. The Men Behind the Equation. Rudolph Clausius German physicist and mathematician One of the foremost contributors to the science of thermodynamics

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clausius clapeyron equation

Clausius-Clapeyron Equation

As assigned by Mr. Amendola despite the fact that he is no longer our chemistry teacher

the men behind the equation
The Men Behind the Equation
  • Rudolph Clausius
    • German physicist and mathematician
    • One of the foremost contributors to the science of thermodynamics
    • Introduced the idea of entropy
    • Significantly impacted the fields of kinetic theory of gases and electricity
  • Benoit Paul Émile Clapeyron
    • French physicist and engineer
    • Considered a founder of thermodynamics
    • Contributed to the study of perfect gases and the equilibrium of homogenous solids
the equation
The Equation
  • In its most useful form for our purposes:
  • In which:
    • P1 and P2 are the vapor pressures at T1 and T2 respectively
    • T is given in units Kelvin
    • ln is the natural log
    • R is the gas constant (8.314 J/K mol)
    • ∆Hvap is the molar heat of vaporization
deriving the equation
Deriving the Equation

We will use this diagram in deriving the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.

This diagram represents a generalized phase diagram. The line acts as a phase line, or a coexistent curve, separating phases α and β.

As we know, this indicates that at all points on the line, phases α and β are in equilibrium.

deriving the equation1
Deriving the Equation
  • Since the phases are in equilibrium along the line, ∆G=0
  • ∆G=∆H-T∆S
  • Since ∆G=0, ∆S=∆H/T
  • We want to find the slope of the coexistent curve. However, since the graph we are examining is a curve rather than a line, the slope must be found by using calculus. The slope is represented by dy/dx, or in the case of the phase diagram, dp/dt. To represent the derivative along the coexistent curve, we write:

The curved “d” represents the use of a partial derivative.

deriving the equation2
Deriving the Equation
  • We use the cyclic rule, a rule of calculus, to find:

We previously wrote ∆G=∆H-T∆S. We can also represent this as ∆G=P∆V-T∆S (see the thermodynamics chapter of your book). Taking the derivative of both sides, we find that d∆G=∆VdP-∆SdT

We have two variables in this differential equation: T and P. To solve this, we treat this in two cases. First, we consider P as a constant. Then, we consider T a constant.

By manipulation, we find:

deriving the equation3
Deriving the Equation
  • Substituting in the equation we found through the cyclic rule, we find:

As ∆S=∆H/T, this can be written as:

We integrate this equation, assuming ∆H and ∆V to be constant, to find:

useful information
Useful Information
  • The Clausius-Clapeyron models the change in vapor pressure as a function of time
  • The equation can be used to model any phase transition (liquid-gas, gas-solid, solid-liquid)
  • Another useful form of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation is:
useful information1
Useful Information
  • We can see from this form that the Clausius-Clapeyron equation depicts a line

Can be written as:

which clearly resembles the model y=mx+b, with ln P representing y, C representing b, 1/T acting as x, and -∆Hvap/R serving as m. Therefore, the Clausius-Clapeyron models a linear equation when the natural log of the vapor pressure is plotted against 1/T, where -∆Hvap/R is the slope of the line and C is the y-intercept

useful information2
Useful Information

We can easily manipulate this equation to arrive at the more familiar form of the equation. We write this equation for two different temperatures:

Subtracting these two equations, we find:

common applications
Common Applications
  • Calculate the vapor pressure of a liquid at any temperature (with known vapor pressure at a given temperature and known heat of vaporization)
  • Calculate the heat of a phase change
  • Calculate the boiling point of a liquid at a nonstandard pressure
  • Reconstruct a phase diagram
  • Determine if a phase change will occur under certain circumstances
real world applications
Real World Applications
  • Chemical engineering
    • Determining the vapor pressure of a substance
  • Meteorology
    • Estimate the effect of temperature on vapor pressure
    • Important because water vapor is a greenhouse gas
shortcomings
Shortcomings
  • The Clausius-Clapeyron can only give estimations
    • We assume changes in the heat of vaporization due to temperature are negligible and therefore treat the heat of vaporization as constant
    • In reality, the heat of vaporization does indeed vary slightly with temperature