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Ch. 8.2 The Excretory Syste m. 1. systems that form the excretory system. digestive system- undigested food leaves through large intestine respiratory system- carbon dioxide and water out skin- salt and organic substances leave through sweat

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Ch. 8.2

The Excretory System

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1. systems that form the excretory system

digestive system- undigested food leaves through large intestine

respiratory system- carbon dioxide and water out

skin- salt and organic substances leave through sweat

urinary system- water, metabolic wastes, and salts out in urine

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rids the blood of wastes made by the cells

  • controls blood volume by removing extra water made by body cells during respiration

2. urinary system

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hypothalamus- in brain, monitors the amount of water in the blood

  • too much water in blood, hypothalamus releases a hormone that tells kidneys to return less water to blood and release more as urine
  • specific amount of water is important for movement of gases and excretion of solid waste
  • also balances the amounts of salts

3. regulating fluid levels

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-filter blood that contains wastes collected from cells, all blood in body passes through in 5 minutes

  • made of about 1 million nephrons

4. kidneys

  • filtering units in the kidneys
  • made of a cuplike structure and a tubelike structure called a duct

5. nephrons

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6. stages of filtering in kidneys

  • stage 1: water, sugar, salt and wastes from blood pass into cuplike structures, red blood cells and protein are left in blood, water is squeezed into a narrow tubule
  • stage 2: most water, sugar and salt reabsorbed and returned to blood and purified blood returned to body through renal vein, wastewater becomes urine
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average sized person makes 1 liter of urine per day

  • leaves kidneys through ureters and go into bladder
  • carried out of body through urethra

7. urine

8. ureters

- tubes that lead from each kidney to the bladder

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9. bladder

  • an elastic, muscular organ that holds urine until it leaves the body
  • can hold about 0.5 liters of urine

10. urethra

- a tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body

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11. other organs of excretion

  • liver- filters the blood to remove wastes
  • extra amino acids changed to urea that leaves in urine
  • hemoglobin from broken down red blood cells becomes part of bile
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wastes can build up and act as poison

  • extra water can cause ankles and feet to swell
  • fluid can build up around the heart, causing it to work harder to move blood to the lungs
  • unbalance of salts can cause kidney damage
  • infections in bladder can spread to kidneys
  • blockages in ureters or urethra

12. What happens if wastes are not removed?

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13. detecting urinary diseases

  • change in urine color- kidney or liver problems
  • high levels of glucose- diabetes
  • high levels of protein called albumin- kidney disease or heart failure

- an artificial kidney machine used to filter blood if both kidneys fail

14. dialysis