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Bellwork : Thursday 2/16/2012. Which elements are important for our body/health ? Oxygen, Calcium, Potassium, Iron Which elements are valuable or precious? Gold, Platinum, Silver How do elements get their names?

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bellwork thursday 2 16 2012
Bellwork: Thursday 2/16/2012
  • Which elements are important for our body/health?
    • Oxygen, Calcium, Potassium, Iron
  • Which elements are valuable or precious?
    • Gold, Platinum, Silver
  • How do elements get their names?
    • Find at least 3 element names on the periodic table that have names that are odd or recognizable. Where do you think the name came from?
    • Named after places discovered/created
      • Germanium- Germany
      • Berkelium- Berkeley, California
      • Americium – named after the country America, where the element was created (in Chicago, Illinois)
      • Europium – named after the continent Europe
    • Named after famous scientists
      • Rutherfordium- Ernest Rutherford
      • Einsteinium- Albert Einstein
    • Named using words from other languages
      • Copper (Cu) – “cuprum,” derived from Greek; named after the island in Cyprus in which it was mined
      • Gold (Au) – “aurum,” derived from Latin; called the solar metal; associated with the Sun (Sol)
      • Iron (Fe) – “ferrous,” derived from Latin; associated with the celestial body, Mars
slide2

Objective 02/11/2013 Page 82

SWBAT recognize the first 20 elements of the periodic table.

Jumpstart

  • 6 protons
    • 6 electrons
    • Atomic number: 6
    • Carbon
  • 34 electrons
    • 34 protons
    • Atomic number: 34
    • Selenium
  • 29 protons & 35 neutrons
    • Atomic mass: 64 amu
    • Copper

Find the # of protons, neutrons, electrons, atomic mass, or atomic number when given certain information.

  • 6 protons
    • # electrons?
    • Atomic number?
    • Element?
  • 34 electrons
    • # protons?
    • Atomic number?
    • Element?
  • 29 protons & 35 neutrons
    • Atomic mass?
    • Element?
  • Hints:
  • # of protons = # of electrons
  • # of protons = Atomic number
  • Protons + Neutrons = Atomic Mass
the periodic table

The Periodic Table

Notebook Page 83

Packet 9 Page 8

periodic table scavenger hunt pg 6
Periodic Table Scavenger Hunt- pg 6
  • Periodic Table Scavenger Hunt
    • Blue Handout
    • Textbook pages 91-103
periodic table scavenger hunt pg 61
Nickel- Ni

Tin- Sn

Neon- Ne

Iron- Fe

Mercury- Hg

Copper- Cu

Periodic Table Scavenger Hunt- pg 6
  • O- Oxygen
  • H- Hydrogen
  • S- Sulfur
  • C- Carbon
  • Co- Cobalt
  • Cl- Chlorine
  • Ca- Calcium
  • He- Helium
  • Zn- Zinc
  • Au- Gold
  • Ag- Silver
  • N- Nitrogen
periodic table scavenger hunt pg 62
Periodic Table Scavenger Hunt- pg 6
  • All contain 1, 2, or 3 letters; first one capitalized, second lowercase
  • Because they can’t all start with the same letter; There are more elements than there are letters in the alphabet!
  • Groups:
    • 1- Alkali Metals;
    • 2- Alkaline Earth Metals;
    • 3-12- Transition Metals;
    • 17- Halogens;
    • 18- Noble Gases
  • Atomic size/mass INCREASES as you move right.
  • Atomic size INCREASES as you go down.
periodic table scavenger hunt pg 63
Periodic Table Scavenger Hunt- pg 6
  • Elements are arranged numerically by their atomic number.
  • The majority of the elements are METALS.
  • Mendeleev designed the first periodic table in 1869.
  • Solve the riddles…
    • 1st place medal- Gold Au
    • Bones strong- Calcium Ca
    • Write on paper- Lead Pb
    • Worth five, bigger than ten- Nickel Ni
evolution of the periodic table it s elementary video 6 34
Evolution of the Periodic Table- It’s Elementary- Video 6.34
  • The properties of the elements repeat in each period (row) of the table
    • An element’s properties can be predicted from its location in the periodic table!

MAJOR IDEA:

organizing the elements arrangement of the periodic table
Organizing the Elements: Arrangement of the Periodic Table
  • Mendeleev: discovered that patterns appeared when the elements were arranged in order of increasingatomic mass.
  • Sometimes this method didn’t work, so he would put the elements in a “best fit” location.
  • Mendeleev Song
slide10

Organization of the Modern Periodic Table

Label these on your blue and white PT!

Periods- horizontal rows (1-7)

slide11

Groups- vertical columns (1-18)

Label these on your blue and white PT!

slide12

Modern Periodic Table

  • Organized based on atomic number(discovered in the 1900’s) rather than atomic mass
    • British scientist, Henry Mosley, created the modern periodic table of elements
    • At 27 years old he was killed in WWI

What are examples (10!) of some elements that don’t fit Mendeleev’s original model (organized by increasing atomic mass)?

Cobalt/Nickel- 27/28

Tellurium/Iodine- 52/53

Argon/Potassium- 18/19

Thorium/Protactinium- 90/92

Uranium/Neptunium- 92/93

Plutonium/Americium- 94/95

february 12 2013
February 12, 2013
  • Take out Packet 9, Page 7 for corrections
  • Atom Property’s Quiz
packet 9 page 7 memorization
Packet 9, Page 7- Memorization
  • The 1st 20 Elements to Memorize…and a few more
    • Fill in the symbols of the missing elements with the correct element and fill in the blanks below the periodic table. These elements are the ones you need to memorize. You should take a few minutes every day to look over them and commit them to memory.
  • Common Compounds to Memorize
    • The following is a list of compounds that you need to memorize. You need to know all three columns.
    • You will be tested on these next week, and will take the test for 3 weeks in a row until you achieve 100% accuracy.
slide15

Objective 02/13/2013 No Page

SWBAT familiarize themselves with the Periodic Table of Elements by recognizing an element’s different properties .

extra credit
Extra Credit?
  • If you can sing this song…in front of the class…then I will give you extra credit….I mean Harry Potter can do it!
  • Daniel Radcliffe (Harry Potter) Sings Element Song
  • And yes it has been done, once….!
page 8 introduction to the periodic table
Page 8- Introduction to the Periodic Table

Modern Periodic Table

  • Period (def) – The horizontal rows; determine the number of orbitals in an atom.
  • Group (def) – The vertical columns; the number of valence electrons in the atom.

5.6 TSW RECOGNIZE THAT WITHIN A PERIOD ON THE PERIODIC TABLE, THE ATOMIC NUMBER OF ELEMENTS INCREASE BY ONE PROTON GOING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT.

  • Organized based on atomic number(discovered in the 1900’s) rather than atomic mass
    • British scientist, Henry Mosley, created the modern periodic table of elements
patterns in the periodic table
Patterns in the Periodic Table

Valence Electrons (def) – the electrons in the outermost orbital.

  • The # can vary from 1-8; to be happy, it wants 8**Octet Rule**
  • True/False. Each element has a typical number of valence electrons.
    • Important: What is the pattern that exists in the periodic table that predicts the number of valence electrons an atom will have?
      • It depends on the group number!!!!
patterns in the periodic table1
Patterns in the Periodic Table
  • 5.7- TSW RECOGNIZE THAT GROUPS ON THE PERIODIC TABLE CONTAIN ELEMENTS WITH SIMILAR PROPERTIES.
    • The properties of the elements repeat in each period (row) of the table.
    • An element’s properties can be predicted from its locationin the periodic table!
trends in the periodic table physical properties of elements
Trends in the Periodic Table: Physical Properties of Elements
  • When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, their physical and chemical properties show a periodic pattern.
reminders
Reminders

Atomic Number

Atomic Mass

Sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

  • Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
  • Atoms are neutral
    • # protons = # electrons
  • Elements are arranged in Periodic Table according to increasing atomic number
reading the periodic table of the elements
Reading the Periodic Table of the Elements
  • Each square of the Periodic Table usually includes the element’s name, atomic number, chemical symbol, and atomic mass.
reading the periodic table of the elements1
Reading the Periodic Table of the Elements

Element’s Name

NOTE: They can be organized different ways. What is an easy way to tell the difference between the atomic mass and the atomic number??

Chemical (Atomic) Symbol

Atomic Number

Atomic Mass

cyopt create your own periodic table as well as labeling and taking notes on each group of elements

The Periodic Table of Elements

CYOPT- Create Your Own Periodic Table…

…as well as labeling and taking notes on each group of elements

create your own periodic table cyopt
Create-Your-Own Periodic Table (CYOPT)

Atomic number

Artificially Made

6

C

12.01

Carbon

Radioactive

  • Fill in the Key at the top for Carbon
  • Begin filling in the atomic symbol, atomic mass, and atomic number for the elements in group 1 & 2—be sure to use the same order as the key!

Chemical symbol

Atomic mass

Element Name

cyopt structure of the atom
CYOPT- Structure of the Atom

Valence Electron Negatively Charged

Outside the Nucleus; in the outside shell

Electron

Negatively Charged

Outside the Nucleus

Charge of atom: Neutral

Charge of nucleus: Positive

Majority of the atom is empty space.

Proton

Positively Charged

Inside the Nucleus

Neutron

Neutrally Charged

Inside the Nucleus

cyopt reading the periodic table
CYOPT- Reading the Periodic Table
  • Atomic Mass = # of protons + # of neutrons
  • Atomic Number = # of protons
  • Organized by increasing atomic number
  • Valence Electrons
    • [Sketch Table]
  • An element’s properties can be predicted from its location in the periodic table
  • Group/Family = column (up/down)
    • # of valence electrons
  • Period = row (left to right)
    • # of orbitals/shells
create your own cyo periodic table pt
Create-Your-Own (CYO) Periodic Table (PT)
  • Man Made: : ) Radioactive: 
  • Coloring: Letters: Black (s), Red (g), Blue (l)
  • Coloring: Outline each in a different color—see my example for help!!
metals
Metals
  • 75% of elements are metals
  • Physical properties of metals:
    • hardness
    • luster(shininess)
    • malleability (can be pounded or rolled into shapes or flat sheets)
    • ductility (can be pulled out or drawn into wires)
  • Conductors(transmit heat and electricity easily)
  • Magnetic (attracted to magnets)
    • ex. iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni)
  • State of Matter- Most metals are solids at room temperature
  • Melting point- high temperature; except Mercury (Hg)--liquid at room temperature
group 1 alkali metals1
Group 1: Alkali Metals
  • Group 1
  • 1 valence electron
    • which it readily loses to become a cation
  • Extremely reactive – NEVER found alone in nature
  • Only found in compounds, combined with other elements
  • Reacts violently with water to produce explosions
  • Causes skin burns if you come into contact with it
  • Physical Properties:
    • Soft- can be cut with a plastic knife
    • Shiny
    • Lightweight
    • Good conductors of electricity and heat
    • Low melting points
    • Tarnishes rapidly
  • Alkali Metals Video (1.30)
group 2 alkaline earth metals1
Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals
  • Group 2
  • 2 valence electrons
  • 2nd most reactive group of elements in the periodic table
  • Chemically bond very easily by giving away 2 electrons
  • Physical Properties:
    • Fairly hard
    • bright white
    • good conductors of electricity
    • high melting points
    • high densities
  • Called Alkaline? When mixed in solutions = pH greater than 7
    • Those pH levels are defined as 'basic' or 'alkaline' solutions
  • Alkaline Metals Video
groups 3 12 transition metals
Groups 3-12: Transition Metals

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

groups 3 12 transition metals1
Groups 3-12: Transition Metals
  • Groups 3-12
  • Largest group of elements
  • Most commonly found
  • Follows NO rules when finding valence electrons
  • Use the two outermost shells/orbitals to bond with other elements
    • Most elements only use the valence shell
  • Physical Properties:
    • Hard and shiny
    • Good conductors of heat & electricity
    • Are fairly stable, reacting slowly or not at all with air and water
    • Most have very high melting and boiling points
    • Most dissolve in acids
  • Gold Malleability Video
  • Copper + Zinc = Brass Video
  • Iron in a Dollar Video
rare earth metals
Rare Earth Metals

Lanthanides

Actinides

rare earth metals lanthanides
Rare Earth Metals: Lanthanides
  • Top row (Rare Earth Metals)
  • Fits in period 6
  • Named after the first element in the row (Lanthanum)
  • Physical Properties:
    • Soft
    • Malleable
    • Shiny/high luster
    • High conductivity
  • Found naturally on Earth
  • Only 1 element in the series is radioactive
rare earth metals actinides
Rare Earth Metals: Actinides
  • Bottom row (Rare Earth Metals)
  • Fits in period 7
  • Named after the first element in the row (Actinium)
  • All are radioactive
    • Nucleus is very unstable
      • last for only a fraction of a second after they are made
  • Some not found in nature
    • Only thorium and uranium exist on Earth in significant amounts
    • All the elements after uranium were created artificially in the lab
other metals metals in mixed groups1
Other Metals (Metals in Mixed Groups)
  • Located in groups 13, 14, 15
  • Includes 7 Elements – Al, Ga, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, Bi
  • Follow “rules” when finding valence electrons
  • Possess many of the same Physical Properties as the Transition Metals:
    • Solid & Opaque
    • Ductile & Malleable
    • High densities
metalloids
Metalloids

13

14

15

16

metalloids1
Metalloids
    • Possess properties of both metals and non-metals
      • Semi-conductors
  • Found along the “stair-step” or “ladder” (between metals/non-metals)
  • Physical Properties:
    • Solids
    • Shiny or dull
    • Will conduct heat and electricity (but not as well as metals)
  • Metalloids:
  • Boron
  • Silicon
  • Germanium
  • Arsenic
  • Antimony
  • Tellurium
  • Polonium
non metals
Non-Metals

1

18

14

15

16

17

nonmetals
Nonmetals
  • 17 nonmetals
    • Found to the right of the “stair step” on the periodic table & Hydrogen
  • Lack most of the properties of metals
  • Physical Properties: (most)
    • Solid nonmetals are brittle (not malleable/ductile)
    • Poor conductors of heat & electricity
    • Dull
  • Chemical Properties: (most)
    • Form compounds easily
      • EXCEPT Group 18 (Noble Gases)
halogens group 17
Halogens- Group 17
  • Group 17
  • 7 valence electrons
    • 1 away from a full shell
    • Very close to being happy
  • Combine with many different elements
    • Often bond with elements from Group One
    • “Very reactive! – Only need 1 more electron to fulfill the “Octet Rule”
    • Never found alone in nature
    • All are poisonous non-metals
noble gases group 18
Noble Gases- Group 18
  • Group 18
  • Full valence shell
    • Hydrogen & Helium: full with 2 electrons
    • Others: full with 8 electrons
  • Happiest elements of all!!
    • Will never combine with other elements (too stable)
  • Colorless, tasteless, odorless gases
  • When electricity passes through them, they glow different colors
gas discharge spectrum tubes noble gases
Gas Discharge Spectrum Tubes- Noble Gases
  • Spectrum tubes contain atoms of gas elements
  • Energy is supplied through an electric field between electrodes at the ends of the tubes.
  • In an electric field, a free electron will accelerate away from the negative electrode and toward the positive electrode.
  • When such an electron collides with a gas molecule in its path, it may transfer some of its energy to the gas molecule, producing a gas molecule in an excited (high-energy) state.

e-(high energy) + Hg --> Hg* + e-(lower energy)

  • In this equation, Hg* represents an atom of mercury in an excited state.
  • The excited gas molecule does not remain in a high-energy state for long. It can return to its lowest-energy state, the ground state, by emitting its excess energy as light.

Hg* --> Hg + light

  • This is the source of the glow of a discharge tube. The gas emits a characteristic particular color of light. The identity of the gas in the tube determines the color of the glow.
slide53

Thursday- 2/14/2013

Happy Valentine’s Day!

Is There Really a Chemistry of Love?

  • …and some information about each of the following compounds
  • Write down the chemical formulas, names…
slide54

LOVE has a lot to do with chemistry…

Some of this communication may involve pheromones—naturally occurring chemicals that can trigger out a range of biological actions among similar species members

Nonverbal communication plays a big part in initial attraction.

Initial Attraction…

slide55

Raw lust is characterized by high levels of testosterone (principal male sex hormone)

C19H28O2

Lust… uncontrollable passionate desire or craving; one of the “7 deadly sins”

slide56

The sweaty palms and pounding heart of infatuation are caused by higher than normal levels of norepinephrine (stress hormone, fight-or-flight response, heart rate, releases adrenaline)

Infatuation

C8H11NO3

slide57

The 'high' of being in love is due to:

Phenylethylamine

PEA the "molecule of love“ & “love at first sight”; chocolate is loaded with PEA—only lasts for the first 3-5 years of a relationship; divorce rates peak around the fourth year of marriage 

“In Love” High…

C8H11N

slide58

The 'high' of being in love is due to:

Dopamine

Dopamine is the brain’s pleasure chemical. It plays a role in gambling, drug use, and, well, love. When we fall in love, dopamine is released, making couples feel elated and energetic about each other.

“In Love” High…

C8H11NO2

slide59

All is not lost once the honeymoon is over…

C10H12N2O

Serotonin- A shortage of this brain chemical is widely associated with depression

Lasting Love…

slide60

Lasting Love…

C43H66N12O12S2

Oxytocin- "hormonal superglue” or “cuddle chemical” that keeps us connected to one another long after the PEA wears out; released every time we hold hands or snuggle up close to someone

slide61

Infidelity…

C43H67N15O12S2

Researchers have found that the stronger the hormone vasopressin is, especially in males, the stronger the males' bond is to female partners.

The weaker this hormone is, the weaker that bond is — and the more likely the males are to feel unsatisfied with and/or cheat on their mates.

slide62

Culture, circumstances, personality, and many other variables have a significant impact on who you fall for.

Ultimately though, scientists agree that chemistry isn't everything.

bellwork tuesday 2 28 2012
Bellwork: Tuesday 2/28/2012

Shown below are the Bohr Models for five different elements:

  • Draw each Bohr Model.
  • Write below each Bohr Model:
    • Find the # of valence electrons in each.
    • Find which group # each element is in.
  • Write the pattern that exists in the periodic table that predicts the number of valence electrons an atom will have.

1 ve’

1 ve’

4 ve’

5 ve’

1 ve’

Group 1

Group 1

Group 14

Group 15

Group 1

The # of valence electrons of an element equals the ones place of the group number (excluding groups 3-12).

packet 9 page 8
Packet 9, Page 8
  • Valence electrons- electrons that are the farthest away from the nucleus (in the outside shell)
    • The # can vary from 1 to 8
      • To be happy - it wants 8 *Octet Rule*
  • Each element has a typical # of valence electrons.
valence electrons pattern
Valence Electrons Pattern
  • In general, the number of valence electrons of an element is equal to the group number.
  • 5.7- TSW RECOGNIZE THAT GROUPS ON THE PERIODIC TABLE CONTAIN ELEMENTS WITH SIMILAR PROPERTIES
  • The properties of the elements repeat in each period (row) of the table
    • An element’s properties can be predicted from its location in the periodic table!
slide66

Page 9: Lewis Dot Structures

  • Lewis Dot Structures (Electron Dot Diagrams)- Diagram that uses dots to represent valence electrons
  • Kernel- A symbol representing the nucleus and all of the electrons, except those in the valence shell

1

Draw on page 9

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

practice lewis dot diagram for oxygen

o

Practice: Lewis Dot Diagram for Oxygen
  • What is the kernel?
  • How many valence electrons?
    • 6 valence electrons (Group 16)
  • Fill the four sides:
    • Place the first dot on the right side
    • Place the second dot on the right side
    • Counterclockwise, place one valence electron on each side
    • Double up as many sides as you need, but no side receives two dots until each side gets one
      • Each side can only hold up to two dots!

Page 9:

Finish the 6 Lewis Dot Structures at the bottom!

packet 9 page 9 lewis dot structures
Packet 9, Page 9- Lewis Dot Structures

Group: 18; # ve’: 8

Group: 1; # ve’: 1

Group: 1; # ve’: 1

Group: 13; # ve’: 3

Group: 18; # ve’: 2

Group: 16; # ve’: 6